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LLIN

Impact of seasonality and malaria control interventions on Anopheles density and species composition from three areas of Uganda with differing malaria endemicity

March 10, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henry Ddumba Mawejje, Maxwell Kilama, Sarah G. Staedke, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:138, 7 March 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the malaria control interventions primarily responsible for reductions in transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa. These interventions, however, may have differential impact on Anopheles species composition and density. This study examined the changing pattern of Anopheles species in three areas of Uganda with markedly different transmission intensities and different levels of vector control.

Malaria rapid diagnostic test (HRP2/pLDH) positivity, incidence, care accessibility and impact of community WASH Action programme in DR Congo: mixed method study involving 625 households

March 3, 2021 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Basilua Andre Muzembo, Tomohiro Hirao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:117, 27 February 2021

Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadliest illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent gains made towards its control, many African countries still have endemic malaria transmission. This study aimed to assess malaria burden at household level in Kongo central province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the impact of community participatory Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Action programme.

A Decline and Age Shift in Malaria Incidence in Rural Mali following Implementation of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention and Indoor Residual Spraying

March 2, 2021 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Coulibaly D, Guindo B, Thera MA, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 1:tpmd200622

Many African countries have reported declines in malaria incidence, attributed to the implementation of control strategies. In Mali, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2004, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been partially distributed free of charge since 2007. In the Malian town of Bandiagara, a study conducted from 2009 to 2013 showed a stable incidence of malaria compared with 1999, despite the implementation of ACTs and LLINs. Since 2016, seasonal malaria chemoprevention has been scaled up across the country.

Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya

March 2, 2021 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 1;16(3):e0240771

Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent powerful tools for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. The success of these interventions relies on their capability to inhibit indoor feeding and resting of malaria mosquitoes. This study sought to understand the interaction of insecticide resistance with indoor and outdoor resting behavioral responses of malaria vectors from Western Kenya.

Access to malaria prevention and control interventions among seasonal migrant workers: A multi-region formative assessment in Ethiopia

February 25, 2021 - 08:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Argaw MD, Woldegiorgis AG, Workineh HA, Akelom BA, Abebe ME, Abate DT, Ashenafi EG
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Feb 23;16(2):e0246251

Mobile or seasonal migrant workers are at increased risk for acquiring malaria infections and can be the primary source of malaria reintroduction into receptive areas. The aim of this formative assessment was to describe access to malaria prevention and control interventions among seasonal migrant or mobile workers in seven regional states of Ethiopia.

Evaluation of the durability and use of long‐lasting insecticidal nets in Nicaragua

February 23, 2021 - 14:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emperatriz Lugo Villalta, Aida Mercedes Soto Bravo, Lucrecia Vizcaino, Nicole Dzuris, Marco Delgado, Michael Green, Stephen C. Smith, Audrey Lenhart and Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:106, 19 February 2021

Vector control for malaria prevention relies most often on the use of insecticide-treated bed net (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying. Little is known about the longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in the Americas. The physical integrity and insecticide retention of LLINs over time were monitored after a bed net distribution campaign to assess community practices around LLIN care and use in Waspam, northeastern Nicaragua.

Assessing the efficacy of two dual-active ingredients long-lasting insecticidal nets for the control of malaria transmitted by pyrethroid-resistant vectors in Benin: study protocol for a three-arm, single-blinded, parallel, cluster-randomized controlled t

February 23, 2021 - 13:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Accrombessi M, Cook J, Protopopoff N, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 19;21(1):194

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. However, this progress is threatened by the wide-scale selection of insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. It is, therefore, important to accelerate the generation of evidence for new classes of LLINs.

Improvement of Indoor Residual Spraying and Long‐Lasting Insecticidal Net services through structured monitoring and supervision as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

February 20, 2021 - 08:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashok K. Mishra, Sekh Nisar, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:101, 18 February 2021

The Government of Madhya Pradesh employed Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) with alpha-cypermethrin synthetic pyrethroids in sub-centres with Annual Parasite Incidence (API) from 2 to 4.99. In sub-centres with API more than 5, Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) were distributed. At the request of the State Government, the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) staff observed and provided support to both IRS and LLINs campaigns. In the year 2017, the study team monitored only the IRS campaigns, however, in the year 2018, the supportive supervision was provided to the IRS campaign teams along with post-distribution monitoring of the LLINs.

A comprehensive mobile application tool for disease surveillance, workforce management and supply chain management for Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project

February 17, 2021 - 08:56 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Harsh Rajvanshi, Yashpal Jain, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:91, 16 February 2021

Health care technologies are now offering accountability, quality, robustness, and accuracy in disease surveillance and health care delivery programmes. With the advent of mobile hand-held devices, these technologies have become more accessible and adaptable for use by field staff working in remote areas. The Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project started collection of data and conduct of routine operations using paper-based reporting systems. Observing the need for a robust and quality digital mobile application, a comprehensive mobile application tool was developed that allowed the project to conduct disease surveillance, workforce management and supply chain management.

Bionomics and ecology of Anopheles merus along the East and Southern Africa coast

February 3, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bartilol B, Omedo I, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Rono MK
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 28;14(1):84

Malaria transmission persists despite the scale-up of interventions such as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Understanding the entomological drivers of transmission is key for the design of effective and sustainable tools to address the challenge. Recent research findings indicate a shift in vector populations from the notorious Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) as a dominant vector to other species as one of the factors contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission.

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