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LLIN

Epidemiology of Malaria in East Nusa Tenggara Province in Indonesia: Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

April 14, 2021 - 08:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guntur RD, Kingsley J, Islam FMA
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Apr 9;10(4):e23545

Malaria is a global pandemic that results in approximately 228 million cases globally; 3.5% of these cases are in Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, Indonesia is in the process of achieving malaria-free zone status by 2030. However, the eastern part of Indonesia, including the East Nusa Tenggara Province (ENTP), still has a disproportionately high rate of malaria.

Efficacy of interceptor® G2, a long-lasting insecticide mixture net treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin against Anopheles funestus: experimental hut trials in north-eastern Tanzania

April 14, 2021 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick K. Tungu, Elisante Michael, Wema Sudi, William W. Kisinza and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:180, 9 April 2021

The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), the primary method for preventing malaria in Africa, is compromised by evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance. Further gains require new insecticides with novel modes of action. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide that disrupts mitochrondrial function and confers no cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Interceptor® G2 LN (IG2) is an insecticide-mixture LLIN, which combines wash-resistant formulations of chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes.

Mosquito Net Ownership, Utilization, and Preferences among Mobile and Migrant Populations Sleeping in Forests and Farms in Central Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study

April 6, 2021 - 14:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Canavati SE, Kelly GC, Vo TH, Tran LK, Ngo TD, Tran DT, Edgel KA, Martin NJ
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200711

Strengthening vector control measures among mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) is crucial to malaria elimination, particularly in areas with multidrug-resistant malaria. Although a global priority, providing access and ensuring high coverage of available tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among these vulnerable groups remains a significant challenge. We assessed mosquito net ownership, utilization, and preference among individuals who slept in a forest and/or on a farm against those residing only in village "home" settings in a priority malaria elimination area of Vietnam.

The Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Bijagos Islands of Guinea-Bissau

March 31, 2021 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
McGregor D, Texeira da Silva E, Grignard L, Goncalves A, Vasileva H, Mabey D, Last A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 29:tpmd201029

Distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), passive detection and treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) are the mainstay malaria control measures of Guinea-Bissau's national control programme. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum on Bubaque, the most populous island of the country's remote Bijagos archipelago.

NOT Open Access | Quality Control of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets: Are We Neglecting It

March 30, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Karl S, Katusele M, Freeman TW, Moore SJ
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S1471-4922(21)00056-8

Over 2.2 billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria control have been delivered to recipient countries. LLINs are the largest single item in the global malaria control budget. To be eligible for donor-funded procurement and distribution schemes, LLIN products must attain and retain World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification status by passing safety, quality, and efficacy benchmarks.

Family, social and cultural determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use in Madagascar: secondary analysis of three qualitative studies focused on children aged 5–15 years

March 30, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ammy Fiadanana Njatosoa, Chiarella Mattern, Christophe Rogier, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:168, 26 March 2021

Although it is accepted that long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is an effective means to prevent malaria, children aged 5 to 15 years do not appear to be sufficiently protected in Madagascar; the malaria prevalence is highest in this age group. The purpose of this research is to summarize recent qualitative studies describing LLIN use among the Malagasy people with a focus on children aged 5–15 years.

Malaria in Eswatini, 2012–2019: a case study of the elimination effort

March 24, 2021 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Theresia Estomih Nkya, Ulrike Fillinger, Makhoselive Dlamini, Onyango P. Sangoro, Rose Marubu, Zulisile Zulu, Emmanuel Chanda, Clifford Maina Mutero and Quinton Dlamini
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:159, 20 March 2021

Eswatini was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to pass a National Malaria Elimination Policy in 2011, and later set a target for elimination by the year 2020. This case study aimed to review the malaria surveillance data of Eswatini collected over 8 years between 2012 and 2019 to evaluate the country’s efforts that targeted malaria elimination by 2020. Coverage of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for vector control and data on malaria cases were provided by the National Malaria Programme (NMP) of Eswatini. The data included all cases treated for malaria in all health facilities.

Impact of seasonality and malaria control interventions on Anopheles density and species composition from three areas of Uganda with differing malaria endemicity

March 10, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henry Ddumba Mawejje, Maxwell Kilama, Sarah G. Staedke, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:138, 7 March 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the malaria control interventions primarily responsible for reductions in transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa. These interventions, however, may have differential impact on Anopheles species composition and density. This study examined the changing pattern of Anopheles species in three areas of Uganda with markedly different transmission intensities and different levels of vector control.

Malaria rapid diagnostic test (HRP2/pLDH) positivity, incidence, care accessibility and impact of community WASH Action programme in DR Congo: mixed method study involving 625 households

March 3, 2021 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Basilua Andre Muzembo, Tomohiro Hirao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:117, 27 February 2021

Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadliest illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent gains made towards its control, many African countries still have endemic malaria transmission. This study aimed to assess malaria burden at household level in Kongo central province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the impact of community participatory Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Action programme.

A Decline and Age Shift in Malaria Incidence in Rural Mali following Implementation of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention and Indoor Residual Spraying

March 2, 2021 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Coulibaly D, Guindo B, Thera MA, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 1:tpmd200622

Many African countries have reported declines in malaria incidence, attributed to the implementation of control strategies. In Mali, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2004, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been partially distributed free of charge since 2007. In the Malian town of Bandiagara, a study conducted from 2009 to 2013 showed a stable incidence of malaria compared with 1999, despite the implementation of ACTs and LLINs. Since 2016, seasonal malaria chemoprevention has been scaled up across the country.

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