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LLIN

Pre-intervention characteristics of the mosquito species in Benin in preparation for a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of dual active-ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling insecticide-resistant malaria vectors

May 25, 2021 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yovogan B, Sovi A, Akogbéto MC, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 May 20;16(5):e0251742

This study provides detailed characteristics of vector populations in preparation for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to compare the community impact of dual active-ingredient (AI) long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) that combine two novel insecticide classes–chlorfenapyr or pyriproxifen–with alpha-cypermethrin to improve the prevention of malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors compared to standard pyrethroid LLINs.

Methods

The study was carried out in 60 villages across Cove, Zangnanando and Ouinhi districts, southern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed using human landing catches (HLCs). After morphological identification, a sub-sample of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were dissected for parity, analyzed by PCR for species and presence of L1014F kdr mutation and by ELISA-CSP to identify Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection. WHO susceptibility tube tests were performed by exposing adult An. gambiae s.l., collected as larvae from each district, to 0.05% alphacypermethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl. Synergist assays were also conducted with exposure first to 4% PBO followed by alpha-cypermethrin.

Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) combined with pyrethroids in insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria in Africa

May 25, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gleave K, Lissenden N, Chaplin M, Choi L, Ranson H
Reference: 
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 24;5:CD012776

Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been important in the large reductions in malaria cases in Africa, but insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes threatens their impact. Insecticide synergists may help control insecticide-resistant populations. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is such a synergist; it has been incorporated into pyrethroid-LLINs to form pyrethroid-PBO nets, which are currently produced by five LLIN manufacturers and, following a recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017, are being included in distribution campaigns. This review examines epidemiological and entomological evidence on the addition of PBO to pyrethroid nets on their efficacy.

Trends in malaria prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in Nkongho-mbeng; a typical rural setting in the equatorial rainforest of the South West Region of Cameroon

May 19, 2021 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nyasa RB, Fotabe EL, Ndip RN
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 May 18;16(5):e0251380

Globally, malaria in recent years has witnessed a decline in the number of cases and death, though the most recent world malaria report shows a slight decrease in the number of cases in 2018 compared to 2017 and, increase in 2017 compared to 2016. Africa remains the region with the greatest burden of the disease. Cameroon is among the countries with a very high burden of malaria, with the coastal and forest regions carrying the highest burden of the disease. Nkongho-mbeng is a typical rural setting in the equatorial rain forest region of Cameroon, with no existing knowledge of the epidemiology of malaria in this locality.

Malaria prevention practices and associated factors among households of Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia, 2020

May 19, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fikrie A, Kayamo M, Bekele H
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 May 13;16(5):e0250981

Despite it is easily preventable; malaria is still remains to be a major public health problem in globally as well as in Ethiopia. The disease can be easily prevented through individual and societal combined efforts by keeping the environment safe, effective utilization of long lasting Insecticide Nets and early treatment. However, the factors for poor knowledge and practices of malaria prevention is not well studied in Ethiopia; particularly, in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to provide concrete evidence towards malaria prevention practices and associated factors among Households of Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia, 2020.

Evaluation of the durability of long‐lasting insecticidal nets in Guatemala

May 18, 2021 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
María Eugenia Castellanos, Soledad Rodas, Norma Padilla, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:219, 14 May 2021

Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are widely used for the prevention and control of malaria. In Guatemala, since 2006, ITNs have been distributed free of charge in the highest risk malaria-endemic areas and constitute one of the primary vector control measures in the country. Despite relying on ITNs for almost 15 years, there is a lack of data to inform the timely replacement of ITNs whose effectiveness becomes diminished by routine use.

Epidemiological and entomological studies of malaria transmission in Tibati, Adamawa region of Cameroon 6 years following the introduction of long-lasting insecticide nets

May 12, 2021 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feufack-Donfack LB, Sarah-Matio EM, Nsango SE, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 8;14(1):247

Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Cameroon. Implementation of control interventions requires prior knowledge of the local epidemiological situation. Here we report the results of epidemiological and entomological surveys carried out in Tibati, Adamawa Region, Cameroon, an area where malaria transmission is seasonal, 6 years after the introduction of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets.

Methods

Cross-sectional studies were carried out in July 2015 and 2017 in Tibati. Thick blood smears and dried blood spots were collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals in the community and at health centers, respectively, and used for the molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium species. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor residual spraying and identified morphologically and molecularly. The infection status of Plasmodium spp. was determined by quantitative PCR, and positivity of PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

Integrity, use and care of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Kirinyaga County, Kenya

May 5, 2021 - 10:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nyangi M, Kigondu E, Irungu B, Nganga M, Gachanja A, Murigi M, Nyangacha R, Muniu E, Kamau L, Gathirwa J
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 May 3;21(1):856

Vector control is an essential component in prevention and control of malaria in malaria endemic areas. Insecticide treated nets is one of the standard tools recommended for malaria vector control. The objective of the study was to determine physical integrity and insecticidal potency of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) used in control of malaria vector in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.

Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases-coordinated Multicountry Study to Determine the Burden and Causes of Residual Malaria Across Different Regions

April 29, 2021 - 08:55 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Fouque F, Knox T
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 27;223(Supplement_2):S91-S98

The burden and causes of residual malaria were investigated between 2015 and 2019 through 5 research projects coordinated by the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), cosponsored by the United Nations Development Programme, UNICEF, the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the WHO Global Malaria Programme. The 5 projects included 10 countries in 4 WHO regions: Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific. The countries represented a range of malaria endemicities, from low to high levels of transmission.

Residual Malaria Transmission in Select Countries of Asia-Pacific Region: Old Wine in a New Barrel

April 29, 2021 - 08:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hii J, Hustedt J, Bangs MJ
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 27;223(Supplement_2):S111-S142

Despite substantial reductions in malaria burden and improvement in case management, malaria remains a major public health challenge in the Asia-Pacific region. Residual malaria transmission (RMT) is the fraction of total transmission that persists after achievement of full operational coverage with effective insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs)/long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spray interventions. There is a critical need to standardize and share best practices for entomological, anthropological, and product development investigative protocols to meet the challenges of RMT and elimination goals.

Ten years of monitoring malaria trend and factors associated with malaria test positivity rates in Lower Moshi

April 21, 2021 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nancy A. Kassam, Robert D. Kaaya, Damian J. Damian, Christentze Schmiegelow, Reginald A. Kavishe, Michael Alifrangis and Christian W. Wang
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:193, 20 April 2021

High altitude settings in Eastern Africa have been reported to experience increased malaria burden due to vector habitat expansion. This study explored possible associations between malaria test positivity rates and its predictors including malaria control measures and meteorological factors at a high-altitude, low malaria transmission setting, south of Mount Kilimanjaro.

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