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The effect of cattle-administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of Anopheles arabiensis Patton

July 6, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Makhanthisa TI, Braack L, Lutermann H
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 2;14(1):349

Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.

Evaluation of Yahe() and Panda() 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Cote d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial

July 6, 2021 - 14:23 -- Open Access
Clegban CY, Camara S, Koffi AA, Ahoua Alou LP, Kabran Kouame JP, Koffi AF, Kouassi PK, Moiroux N, Pennetier C
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 1;14(1):347

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in reducing the global malaria burden since 2000. They are a core prevention tool used widely by people at risk of malaria. The Vector Control Prequalification mechanism of the Word Health Organization (WHO-Vector Control PQ) established the testing and evaluation guidelines for LLINs before registration for public use. In the present study, two new brands of deltamethrin-impregnated nets (Yahe® LN and Panda® Net 2.0) were evaluated in an experimental hut against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in M’Bé nearby Bouaké, central Côte d’Ivoire.

Challenges and opportunities for use of long-lasting insecticidal nets to prevent malaria during overnight travel in Uganda: a qualitative study

June 30, 2021 - 12:21 -- Open Access
Deborah Ekusai-Sebatta, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Arthur Mpimbaza, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Chris Drakeley, Philip J. Rosenthal, Sarah G. Staedke and Herbert Muyinda
Malaria Journal 2021 20:283, 26 June 2021

Travel is a well-recognized risk factor for malaria. Within sub-Saharan Africa, travellers from areas of lower to higher transmission intensity are potentially at high risk of malaria. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary tool for prevention of malaria, and their widespread use has contributed to substantial reductions in malaria burden. However, travellers often fail to use LLINs. To further explore the challenges and opportunities of using LLINs, travellers were interviewed in Uganda.

Insecticide resistance status of Anopheles arabiensis in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in western Kenya

June 29, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Orondo PW, Nyanjom SG, Yan G, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26;14(1):335

Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compromises the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control programs. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes has been implicated as one of the sources driving the selection of resistance. The current study was undertaken to assess the status and mechanism of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in irrigated and non-irrigated areas with varying agrochemical use in western Kenya.

Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Incorporating Piperonyl Butoxide Reduce the Risk of Malaria in Children in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

June 16, 2021 - 09:40 -- Open Access
Minakawa N, Kongere JO, Sonye GO, Lutiali PA, Awuor B, Kawada H, Isozumi R, Futami K
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 14:tpmd201069

Malaria vectors have acquired an enzyme that metabolizes pyrethroids. To tackle this problem, we evaluated long-lasting insecticidal nets incorporating piperonyl butoxide (PBO-LLINs) with a community-based cluster randomized control trial in western Kenya. The primary endpoints were anopheline density and Plasmodium falciparum polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive prevalence (PCRpfPR) of children aged 7 months to 10 years. Four clusters were randomly selected for each of the treatment and control arms (eight clusters in total) from 12 clusters, and PBO-LLINs and standard LLINs were distributed in February 2011 to 982 and 1,028 houses for treatment and control arms, respectively.

Long lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs) ownership, use and coverage following mass distribution campaign in Lake Victoria basin, Western Kenya

June 9, 2021 - 13:05 -- Open Access
Ng'ang'a PN, Aduogo P, Mutero CM
BMC Public Health. 2021 Jun 2;21(1):1046

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely used malaria prevention and control intervention in Africa. However, their effectiveness may vary depending on their local geographic coverage, ownership and use at household level. This study aimed at assessing LLINs ownership and use following mass distribution campaign in western Kenya.

Older children are at increased risk of Plasmodium vivax in south-central Ethiopia: a cohort study

June 9, 2021 - 07:44 -- Open Access
Taye Gari, Tarekegn Solomon and Bernt Lindtjørn
Malaria Journal 2021 20:251, 6 June 2021

Better understanding of the distribution of Plasmodium vivax and its risk factors could be used to prevent and control malaria infection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the distribution and risk factors of P. vivax, and to compare them with Plasmodium falciparum occurrence in south-central Ethiopia.

Impact of Community-Based Mass Testing and Treatment on Malaria Infection Prevalence in a High-Transmission Area of Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

June 8, 2021 - 10:49 -- Open Access
Samuels AM, Odero NA, Desai MR, et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 1;72(11):1927-1935 

Global gains toward malaria elimination have been heterogeneous and have recently stalled. Interventions targeting afebrile malaria infections may be needed to address residual transmission. We studied the efficacy of repeated rounds of community-based mass testing and treatment (MTaT) on malaria infection prevalence in western Kenya.

Why Did Mass Test and Treat Have No Effect on Malaria Prevalence in Western Kenya

June 5, 2021 - 07:21 -- Open Access
Hamer DH, Miller JM
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 1;72(11):1936-1937

Great progress has been made in malaria control during the last 2 decades, although recent estimates suggest that this process has stagnated. Building on the optimism generated by the reductions in malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, there has been a growth in enthusiasm for malaria elimination with the eventual goal of eradication.

Pre-intervention characteristics of the mosquito species in Benin in preparation for a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of dual active-ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling insecticide-resistant malaria vectors

May 25, 2021 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Yovogan B, Sovi A, Akogbéto MC, et al.
PLoS One. 2021 May 20;16(5):e0251742

This study provides detailed characteristics of vector populations in preparation for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to compare the community impact of dual active-ingredient (AI) long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) that combine two novel insecticide classes–chlorfenapyr or pyriproxifen–with alpha-cypermethrin to improve the prevention of malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors compared to standard pyrethroid LLINs.


The study was carried out in 60 villages across Cove, Zangnanando and Ouinhi districts, southern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed using human landing catches (HLCs). After morphological identification, a sub-sample of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were dissected for parity, analyzed by PCR for species and presence of L1014F kdr mutation and by ELISA-CSP to identify Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection. WHO susceptibility tube tests were performed by exposing adult An. gambiae s.l., collected as larvae from each district, to 0.05% alphacypermethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl. Synergist assays were also conducted with exposure first to 4% PBO followed by alpha-cypermethrin.


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