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Geopolitical zones differentials in intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) utilization in Nigeria

July 20, 2021 - 13:16 -- Open Access
Chukwu C, Onuoha H, Okorafor KAK, Ojomo O, Mokuolu OA, Ekholuenetale M
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 16;16(7):e0254475

The coverage of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) uptake for the prevention of malaria commonly vary by geography. Many sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, including Nigeria are adopting the use of LLIN and IPTp to fight malaria. Albeit, the coverage of these interventions to prevent malaria across geographical divisions have been understudied in many countries. In this study, we aimed to explore the differentials in LLIN and IPTp uptake across Nigerian geopolitical zones.

Ownership and utilization of bed nets and reasons for use or non-use of bed nets among community members at risk of malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border

July 7, 2021 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Kasama Pooseesod, Daniel M. Parker, Natthani Meemon, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Pratap Singhasivanon, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui and Suparat Phuanukoonnon
Malaria Journal 2021 20:305, 6 July 2021

With the goal for malaria elimination in Thailand set for 2024, increased coverage and utilization of bed net, especially insecticide-treated net (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is a key strategy. This study aims to provide the necessary information about bed net ownership and utilization among the population at risk of malaria living along the Thai-Myanmar border in Tak province.

Malaria prevalence and long-lasting insecticidal net use in rural western Uganda: results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in an area of highly variable malaria transmission intensity

July 7, 2021 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Claire M. Cote, Varun Goel, Rabbison Muhindo, Emmanuel Baguma, Moses Ntaro, Bonnie E. Shook-Sa, Raquel Reyes, Sarah G. Staedke, Edgar M. Mulogo and Ross M. Boyce
Malaria Journal 2021 20:304, 5 July 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) remain a cornerstone of malaria control, but strategies to sustain universal coverage and high rates of use are not well-defined. A more complete understanding of context-specific factors, including transmission intensity and access to health facilities, may inform sub-district distribution approaches and tailored messaging campaigns.

Effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets in prevention of malaria among individuals visiting health centres in Ziway-Dugda District, Ethiopia: matched case–control study

July 7, 2021 - 14:44 -- Open Access
Mesfin Kelkile Wubishet, Gebretsadik Berhe, Alefech Adissu and Mesfin Segni Tafa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:301, 3 July 2021

Malaria is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Sleeping under long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is its major control strategy. Despite high LLINs use (84%) in Ziway-Dugda District, malaria remained a public health problem, raising concern on its effectiveness. Understanding the effectiveness of malaria control interventions is vital. This study evaluated the effectiveness of LLINs and determinants of malaria in Ziway-Dugda District, Arsi Zone Ethiopia.

The effect of cattle-administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of Anopheles arabiensis Patton

July 6, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Makhanthisa TI, Braack L, Lutermann H
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 2;14(1):349

Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.

Evaluation of Yahe() and Panda() 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Cote d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial

July 6, 2021 - 14:23 -- Open Access
Clegban CY, Camara S, Koffi AA, Ahoua Alou LP, Kabran Kouame JP, Koffi AF, Kouassi PK, Moiroux N, Pennetier C
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 1;14(1):347

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in reducing the global malaria burden since 2000. They are a core prevention tool used widely by people at risk of malaria. The Vector Control Prequalification mechanism of the Word Health Organization (WHO-Vector Control PQ) established the testing and evaluation guidelines for LLINs before registration for public use. In the present study, two new brands of deltamethrin-impregnated nets (Yahe® LN and Panda® Net 2.0) were evaluated in an experimental hut against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in M’Bé nearby Bouaké, central Côte d’Ivoire.

Challenges and opportunities for use of long-lasting insecticidal nets to prevent malaria during overnight travel in Uganda: a qualitative study

June 30, 2021 - 12:21 -- Open Access
Deborah Ekusai-Sebatta, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Arthur Mpimbaza, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Chris Drakeley, Philip J. Rosenthal, Sarah G. Staedke and Herbert Muyinda
Malaria Journal 2021 20:283, 26 June 2021

Travel is a well-recognized risk factor for malaria. Within sub-Saharan Africa, travellers from areas of lower to higher transmission intensity are potentially at high risk of malaria. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary tool for prevention of malaria, and their widespread use has contributed to substantial reductions in malaria burden. However, travellers often fail to use LLINs. To further explore the challenges and opportunities of using LLINs, travellers were interviewed in Uganda.

Insecticide resistance status of Anopheles arabiensis in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in western Kenya

June 29, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Orondo PW, Nyanjom SG, Yan G, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26;14(1):335

Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compromises the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control programs. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes has been implicated as one of the sources driving the selection of resistance. The current study was undertaken to assess the status and mechanism of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in irrigated and non-irrigated areas with varying agrochemical use in western Kenya.

Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Incorporating Piperonyl Butoxide Reduce the Risk of Malaria in Children in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

June 16, 2021 - 09:40 -- Open Access
Minakawa N, Kongere JO, Sonye GO, Lutiali PA, Awuor B, Kawada H, Isozumi R, Futami K
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 14:tpmd201069

Malaria vectors have acquired an enzyme that metabolizes pyrethroids. To tackle this problem, we evaluated long-lasting insecticidal nets incorporating piperonyl butoxide (PBO-LLINs) with a community-based cluster randomized control trial in western Kenya. The primary endpoints were anopheline density and Plasmodium falciparum polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive prevalence (PCRpfPR) of children aged 7 months to 10 years. Four clusters were randomly selected for each of the treatment and control arms (eight clusters in total) from 12 clusters, and PBO-LLINs and standard LLINs were distributed in February 2011 to 982 and 1,028 houses for treatment and control arms, respectively.

Long lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs) ownership, use and coverage following mass distribution campaign in Lake Victoria basin, Western Kenya

June 9, 2021 - 13:05 -- Open Access
Ng'ang'a PN, Aduogo P, Mutero CM
BMC Public Health. 2021 Jun 2;21(1):1046

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely used malaria prevention and control intervention in Africa. However, their effectiveness may vary depending on their local geographic coverage, ownership and use at household level. This study aimed at assessing LLINs ownership and use following mass distribution campaign in western Kenya.


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