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On the cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated wall liner and indoor residual spraying as additions to insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria: findings from cluster randomized trials in Tanzania

September 23, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Mpangala KR, Halasa-Rappel YA, Shepard DS, et al.
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1666

Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. A new technology, insecticide-treated wall liner (ITWL), might overcome these challenges.

NOT Open Access | An Adaptive Intervention Trial Design for Finding the Optimal Integrated Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination in Africa: A Model Simulation Study

September 8, 2021 - 17:13 -- NOT Open Access
Zhou G, Lee MC, Wang X, Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Yan G
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd200254

There are a number of available and emerging malaria intervention tools that require innovative trial designs to find the optimal combinations at given epidemiologic settings. We simulated intervention strategies based on adaptive interventions, which included long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), piperonyl butoxide-treated LLINs (PBO-LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and long-lasting microbial larviciding (LLML). The aims were to determine if PBO-LLINs or LLIN+IRS combination is more effective for initial interventions than LLINs and to identify the most effective intervention.

Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso

September 7, 2021 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Sanou A, Nelli L, Guelbéogo WM, Cissé F, Tapsoba M, Ouédraogo P, Sagnon N, Ranson H, Matthiopoulos J, Ferguson HM
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 2;11(1):17569

The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.

Predictors of knowledge and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria among the pregnant women in Pakistan

August 25, 2021 - 17:27 -- Open Access
Ramesh Kumar, Midhat Farzeen, Jamil Ahmed, Manohar Lal and Ratana Somrongthong
Malaria Journal 2021 20:347, 23 August 2021

Malaria is endemic to Pakistan with high prevalence among pregnant women and linked with maternal anaemia, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and low birth weight. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a proven and cost-effective intervention preventing malaria among pregnant women. The present study aimed to explore predictors of knowledge and use of LLINs among pregnant women in Pakistan.

Insecticide-treated net distribution in Western Kenya: impacts related to COVID-19 and health worker strikes

August 18, 2021 - 17:14 -- Open Access
Suiyanka L, Alegana VA, Snow RW
Int Health. 2021 Aug 16:ihab051

We examined the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID) mitigation, supply and distribution interruptions on the delivery of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in Western Kenya. The median monthly distribution of LLINs declined during COVID mitigation strategies (March-July 2020) and during the health worker strikes (December 2020-February 2021).

NOT Open Access | The Unsustainability of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets

August 10, 2021 - 18:18 -- NOT Open Access
Santos EM, Curtis TM
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 9:tpmd210276

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are highly effective tools for malaria prevention, and it is clear bed nets are necessary. However, given the environmental concerns of the production, distribution, and disposal of LLINs, the malaria prevention community should look to design sturdier nets that last longer and are made of more sustainable materials to reduce harmful environmental impacts in a time when addressing climate change is urgent.

Coverage, determinants of use and repurposing of long-lasting insecticidal nets two years after a mass distribution in Lihir Islands, Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study

August 4, 2021 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Pere Millat-Martínez, Rebecca Gabong, Quique Bassat, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:336, 4 August 2021

Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is an essential component of malaria control programmes. Three-yearly mass distribution of LLINs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been successful in reducing infection transmission since 2009, but malaria prevalence ramped up from 2015 onwards. Although LLIN universal coverage is mostly achieved during these campaigns, it may not be related with net use over time. Uses given to LLINs and non-compliance of this strategy were evaluated.

Geopolitical zones differentials in intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) utilization in Nigeria

July 20, 2021 - 13:16 -- Open Access
Chukwu C, Onuoha H, Okorafor KAK, Ojomo O, Mokuolu OA, Ekholuenetale M
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 16;16(7):e0254475

The coverage of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) uptake for the prevention of malaria commonly vary by geography. Many sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, including Nigeria are adopting the use of LLIN and IPTp to fight malaria. Albeit, the coverage of these interventions to prevent malaria across geographical divisions have been understudied in many countries. In this study, we aimed to explore the differentials in LLIN and IPTp uptake across Nigerian geopolitical zones.

Ownership and utilization of bed nets and reasons for use or non-use of bed nets among community members at risk of malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border

July 7, 2021 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Kasama Pooseesod, Daniel M. Parker, Natthani Meemon, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Pratap Singhasivanon, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui and Suparat Phuanukoonnon
Malaria Journal 2021 20:305, 6 July 2021

With the goal for malaria elimination in Thailand set for 2024, increased coverage and utilization of bed net, especially insecticide-treated net (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is a key strategy. This study aims to provide the necessary information about bed net ownership and utilization among the population at risk of malaria living along the Thai-Myanmar border in Tak province.

Malaria prevalence and long-lasting insecticidal net use in rural western Uganda: results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in an area of highly variable malaria transmission intensity

July 7, 2021 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Claire M. Cote, Varun Goel, Rabbison Muhindo, Emmanuel Baguma, Moses Ntaro, Bonnie E. Shook-Sa, Raquel Reyes, Sarah G. Staedke, Edgar M. Mulogo and Ross M. Boyce
Malaria Journal 2021 20:304, 5 July 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) remain a cornerstone of malaria control, but strategies to sustain universal coverage and high rates of use are not well-defined. A more complete understanding of context-specific factors, including transmission intensity and access to health facilities, may inform sub-district distribution approaches and tailored messaging campaigns.


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