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A quasi-experimental study estimating the impact of long-lasting insecticidal nets with and without piperonyl butoxide on pregnancy outcomes

January 14, 2022 - 23:44 -- Open Access
Michelle E. Roh, Brenda Oundo, Grant Dorsey, Stephen Shiboski, Roly Gosling, M. Maria Glymour, Sarah G. Staedke, Adam Bennett, Hugh Sturrock and Arthur Mpimbaza
Malaria Journal 2022 21:5, 4 January 2022

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the main vector control tool for pregnant women, but their efficacy may be compromised, in part, due to pyrethroid resistance. In 2017, the Ugandan Ministry of Health embedded a cluster randomized controlled trial into the national LLIN campaign, where a random subset of health subdistricts (HSDs) received LLINs treated with piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a chemical synergist known to partially restore pyrethroid sensitivity. Using data from a small, non-randomly selected subset of HSDs, this secondary analysis used quasi-experimental methods to quantify the overall impact of the LLIN campaign on pregnancy outcomes. In an exploratory analysis, differences between PBO and conventional (non-PBO) LLINs on pregnancy outcomes were assessed.

Risk factors associated with malaria infection identified through reactive case detection in Zanzibar, 2012–2019

January 12, 2022 - 23:31 -- Open Access
Humphrey R. Mkali, Erik J. Reaves, Jeremiah M. Ngondi, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:485, 24 December 2021

Over the past two decades, Zanzibar substantially reduced malaria burden. As malaria decreases, sustainable improvements in control interventions may increasingly depend on accurate knowledge of malaria risk factors to further target interventions. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with malaria infection in Zanzibar.

Incidence and consequences of damage to insecticide-treated mosquito nets in Kenya

January 12, 2022 - 22:54 -- Open Access
Thomas Smith, Adrian Denz, Maurice Ombok, Nabie Bayoh, Hannah Koenker, Nakul Chitnis, Olivier Briet, Joshua Yukich and John E. Gimnig
Malaria Journal 2021 20:476, 20 December 2021

Efforts to improve the impact of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) should be informed by understanding of the causes of decay in effect. Holes in LLINs have been estimated to account for 7–11% of loss in effect on vectorial capacity for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys of LLINs in Kenya. This does not account for the effect of holes as a cause of net attrition or non-use, which cannot be measured using only cross-sectional data. There is a need for estimates of how much these indirect effects of physical damage on use and attrition contribute to decay in effectiveness of LLINs.

Hyper-prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in a rural area of western Kenya with declining malaria cases

January 5, 2022 - 23:10 -- Open Access
Kevin O. Ochwedo, Collince J. Omondi, Yan Guiyan, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:472, 20 December 2021

The gold standard for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum infection is microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. The effectiveness of this procedure for infection surveillance and malaria control may be limited by a relatively high parasitaemia detection threshold. Persons with microscopically undetectable infections may go untreated, contributing to ongoing transmission to mosquito vectors. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and determinants of undiagnosed submicroscopic P. falciparum infections in a rural area of western Kenya.

The effect of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) physical integrity on utilization

January 5, 2022 - 23:04 -- Open Access
Honelgn Nahusenay Hiruy, Ayele Zewde, Joseph Keating, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:468, 18 December 2021

In Ethiopia, despite improvements in coverage and access, utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) remains a challenge. Different household-level factors have been identified as associated with LLIN use. However, the contribution of LLIN physical integrity to their utilization is not well investigated and documented. This study aimed to assess the association between the physical integrity of LLINs and their use.

Community knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding malaria and its control in Jabi Tehnan district, Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia

December 28, 2021 - 21:04 -- Open Access
Abebe Asale, Zewdu Abro, Bayu Enchalew, Alayu Teshager, Aklilu Belay, Menale Kassie and Clifford Maina Mutero
Malaria Journal 2021 20:459, 9 December 2021

Use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), community-based malaria education, prompt diagnosis and treatment are key programme components of malaria prevention and control in Ethiopia. However, the effectiveness of these interventions is often undermined by various challenges, including insecticide and drug resistance, the plasticity of malaria vectors feeding and biting behaviour, and certain household factors that lead to misuse and poor utilization of LLINs. The primary objective of this study was to document households’ perceptions towards malaria and assess the prevalence of the disease and the constraints related to the ongoing interventions in Ethiopia (LLINs, IRS, community mobilization house screening).

Bioefficacy and durability of Olyset® Plus, a permethrin and piperonyl butoxide-treated insecticidal net in a 3-year long trial in Kenya

December 27, 2021 - 10:44 -- Open Access
Gichuki PM, Kamau L, Njagi K, Karoki S, Muigai N, Matoke-Muhia D, Bayoh N, Mathenge E, Yadav RS
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Dec 20;10(1):135

Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) are a core malaria intervention. LLINs should retain efficacy against mosquito vectors for a minimum of three years. Efficacy and durability of Olyset® Plus, a permethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) treated LLIN, was evaluated versus permethrin treated Olyset® Net. In the absence of WHO guidelines of how to evaluate PBO nets, and considering the manufacturer’s product claim, Olyset® Plus was evaluated as a pyrethroid LLIN.

Not Open Access | Evaluation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution Through Schools in Southern Tanzania

December 23, 2021 - 10:01 -- NOT Open Access
Stuck L, Chacky F, Festo C, Lutambi A, Abdul R, Greer G, Mandike R, Nathan R, Elisaria E, Yukich J
Health Policy Plan. 2021 Dec 17:czab140

Universal coverage with effective vector control remains the mainstay of malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania has utilized a number of mechanisms for the maintenance of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage over time. Schools have been identified as one potential channel for continuous distribution of LLIN. This research aims to evaluate an annual school based LLIN distribution programme in Tanzania which began in 2013, called the School Net Programme (SNP). Following each of the first four rounds of SNP distribution, a household survey was conducted in intervention and comparison districts in Southern and Lake zones of Tanzania (N = 5083 households).

NOT Open Access | Effect of Short-Term Heating on Bioefficacy of Deltamethrin-Coated Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets

December 23, 2021 - 09:45 -- NOT Open Access
Bubun N, Freeman TW, Laman M, Karl S
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Dec 20:tpmd210613

The authors recently reported that long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) distributed in Papua New Guinea (PNG) between 2013 and 2019, exhibited severely diminished efficacy to knock down and kill susceptible Anopheles mosquitoes. This coincided with a rise in malaria observed in PNG since 2015. Here, the authors show that LLIN bioefficacy is increased by heating LLINs prior to WHO cone bioassays. Unused LLINs with low bioefficacy, delivered to PNG in 2019, were heated to 120°C for 5 minutes. Cone bioassays were performed before and at 1 hour, 7 days, and 30 days after heating.

Anopheles drivers of persisting malaria transmission in Guna Yala, Panamá: an operational investigation

December 15, 2021 - 21:08 -- Open Access
Mario I. Ávila, Élodie A. Vajda, Eileen Jeffrey Gutiérrez, Daragh A. Gibson, Mariela Mosquera Renteria, Nicholas Presley, Daniel O’Reilly, Timothy A. Burton, Allison Tatarsky and Neil F. Lobo
Malaria Journal 2021 20:443, 24 November 2021

Though most of Panamá is free from malaria, localized foci of transmission persist, including in the Guna Yala region. Government-led entomological surveillance using an entomological surveillance planning tool (ESPT) sought to answer programmatically-relevant questions that would enhance the understanding of both local entomological drivers of transmission and gaps in protection that result in persisting malaria transmission to guide local vector control decision-making.


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