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cerebral malaria

Parasite histones are toxic to brain endothelium and link blood barrier breakdown and thrombosis in cerebral malaria

July 15, 2020 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moxon CA, Alhamdi Y, Storm J, Toh CH, et al.
Reference: 
Blood Adv. 2020 Jul 14; 4(13):2851-2864

Microvascular thrombosis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown are key components of cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis in African children and are implicated in fatal brain swelling. How Plasmodium falciparum infection causes this endothelial disruption and why this occurs, particularly in the brain, is not fully understood. In this study, we have demonstrated that circulating extracellular histones, equally of host and parasite origin, are significantly elevated in CM patients. Higher histone levels are associated with brain swelling on magnetic resonance imaging.

Association of cerebral malaria and TNF-α levels: a systematic review

June 26, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Leão L, Puty B, Dolabela MF, Povoa MM, Né YGS, Eiró LG, Fagundes NCF, Maia LC, Lima RR
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 23;20(1):442

Cerebral malaria is the most severe form of infection with Plasmodium falciparum characterized by a highly inflammatory response. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between TNF-α levels and cerebral malaria.

Plasma cell-free DNA predicts pediatric cerebral malaria severity

June 22, 2020 - 16:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vera IM, Kessler A, Kim K, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2020 Jun 18;5(12):136279

Prediction of adverse outcomes in cerebral malaria (CM) is difficult. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels would facilitate identification of severe and potentially fatal CM cases.

NOT Open Access | von Willebrand factor increases in experimental cerebral malaria but is not essential for late-stage pathogenesis in mice

June 3, 2020 - 16:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kraisin S, Martinod K, Desender L, Pareyn I, Verhenne S, Deckmyn H, Vanhoorelbeke K, Van den Steen PE, De Meyer SF
Reference: 
J Thromb Haemost. 2020 Jun 2

Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe complication in malaria. Endothelial activation, cytokine release and vascular obstruction are essential hallmarks of CM. Clinical studies have suggested a link between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and malaria pathology.

NOT Open Access | Preparedness Tested: Severe Cerebral Malaria Presenting as a High-Risk Person Under Investigation for Ebola Virus Disease at a US Hospital

May 12, 2020 - 16:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Anesi GL, Meyer NJ, Reilly JP, Schweickert WD, Mikkelsen ME, Myers EV, Dickinson ET, Kelly MP, Pegues DA, Fishman NO
Reference: 
Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020 May 8:1-6

In 2019, a 42-year-old African man who works as an Ebola virus disease (EVD) researcher traveled from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), near an ongoing EVD epidemic, to Philadelphia and presented to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Emergency Department with altered mental status, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. He was classified as a “wet” person under investigation for EVD, and his arrival activated our hospital emergency management command center and bioresponse teams.

NOT Open Access | Integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles of monocyte-derived dendritic cells differentiation during experimental cerebral malaria

May 6, 2020 - 15:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Assis PA, Fernandes Durso D, Tostes Gazzinelli R, et al.
Reference: 
J Leukoc Biol. 2020 May 3

Heterogeneity and high plasticity are common features of cells from the mononuclear phagocyte system: monocytes (MOs), macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). Upon activation by microbial agents, MO can differentiate into MO‐derived DCs (MODCs). In previous work, we have shown that during acute infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA), MODCs become, transiently, the main CD11b+ myeloid population in the spleen (SP) and once recruited to the brain play an important role in the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM).

Central Nervous System Virus Infection in African Children with Cerebral Malaria

April 29, 2020 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Postels DG, Osei-Tutu L, Wilson MR, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

We aimed to identify the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) viral coinfection to illness in African children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria (CM). We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 272 children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive CM and selected CSF from 111 of these children (38 retinopathy positive, 71 retinopathy negative, 2 retinopathy unknown) for analysis by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

Depleted circulatory complement-lysis inhibitor (CLI) in childhood cerebral malaria returns to normal with convalescence

April 27, 2020 - 13:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Samuel Eneọjọ Abah, Florence Burté, Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:167, 26 April 2020

Cerebral malaria (CM), is a life-threatening childhood malaria syndrome with high mortality. CM is associated with impaired consciousness and neurological damage. It is not fully understood, as yet, why some children develop CM. Presented here is an observation from longitudinal studies on CM in a paediatric cohort of children from a large, densely-populated and malaria holoendemic, sub-Saharan, West African metropolis.

Molecular targets in cerebral malaria for developing novel therapeutic strategies

April 6, 2020 - 14:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vanka R, Nakka VP, Kumar SP, Baruah UK, Babu PP
Reference: 
Brain Res Bull. 2020 Apr;157:100-107

Cerebral malaria (CM) is the severe neurological complication associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection. In clinical settings CM is predominantly characterized by fever, epileptic seizures, and asexual forms of parasite on blood smears, coma and even death. Cognitive impairment in the children and adults even after survival is one of the striking consequences of CM.

Amount of Brain Edema Correlates With Neurologic Recovery in Pediatric Cerebral Malaria

April 6, 2020 - 08:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kampondeni S, Seydel KB, Zhang B, Small DS, Birbeck GL, Hammond CA, Chilingulo C, Taylor TE, Potchen MJ
Reference: 
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Apr;39(4):277-282

Cerebral malaria (CM) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies using brain magnetic resonance imaging have revealed increased brain volume as a major predictor of death. Similar morphometric predictors of morbidity at discharge are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of serial cranial cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume measurements in predicting morbidity at discharge in pediatric CM survivors.

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