Cerebral malaria (CM) is defined by WHO as coma (Blantyre Coma Score 2 or less) in a patient with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and no alternative cause of coma identified. Mortality is approximately 15%-30% in African children and up to one-third of survivors have neurological sequelae. We present a patient with severe stridor and prolonged profound weakness during an intensive care admission with CM.
Circulating levels of the adipokine leptin are linked to neuropathology in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), but its source and regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we show that sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) microvasculature increased local vascular permeability and leptin production. Mice infected with parasite strains that fail to sequester in WAT displayed reduced leptin production and protection from ECM.
Malaria, Chagas Disease and Human African Trypanosomiasis are vector-borne protozoan illnesses, frequently associated with neurological manifestations. Intriguing but ignored, limited mainly to resource-limited, tropical settings, these disorders are now coming to light because of globalisation and improved diagnosis and treatment. Enhanced understanding of these illnesses has prompted this review.
A 10-y-old boy presented with history of on and off fever with rigor for one week followed by altered sensorium. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal areas of hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving bilateral thalami, bilateral external capsule, midbrain, pons, cerebellar peduncles, and splenium.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe immunovasculopathy which presents high mortality rate (15-20%), despite the availability of artemisinin-based therapy. More effective immunomodulatory and/or antiparasitic therapies are urgently needed. Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) in mice is used to elucidate aspects involved in this pathology since manifests many of the neurological features of CM.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is caused by the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the brain microvasculature, leading to inflammation, vessel occlusion, and cerebral swelling. We have previously linked dual intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)- and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)-binding P. falciparum parasites to these symptoms, but the mechanism driving the pathogenesis has not been identified.
Cerebral malaria is an outcome of multifaceted and complicated condition. Cytoadherence is one critical factor in cerebral malaria pathology as high order cytoadherence complexes result in vascular congestion and cell apoptosis. Morphological abnormalities in uninfected RBCs can be a contributing factor to aggravate cytoadherence. Malaria pigment hemozoin is a potential bioactive molecule and the role of this pigment in cerebral malaria pathology is not completely understood. To understand this, primarily we investigated the impact of hemozoin pigment on uninfected RBCs.
Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Having shown low systemic levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzymatic cofactor for neurotransmitter synthesis, we hypothesized that BH4 and BH4-dependent neurotransmitters would likewise be low in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in CM.
The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-membrane-protein-1 (PF3D7_1150400/PF11_0521) contains both domain cassette DC13 and DBLβ3 domain binding to EPCR and ICAM-1 receptors, respectively. This type of PfEMP1 proteins with dual binding specificity mediate specific interactions with brain micro-vessels endothelium leading to the development of cerebral malaria (CM).
Cerebral malaria is a common presentation of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection and remains an important cause of death in the tropics. Key aspects of its pathogenesis are still incompletely understood, but severe brain swelling identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was associated with a fatal outcome in African children. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations failed to identify cerebral features associated with fatality in Asian adults.