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prevalence

Prevalence and risk factors related to poor outcome of patients with severe Plasmodium vivax infection: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and analysis of case reports

May 25, 2020 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 May 24; 20(1):363

Plasmodium vivax rarely develops severe complications when compared to severe falciparum malaria. However, severe vivax malaria also needs urgent, intensive care and treatment as severe falciparum malaria. This systematic review aimed to explore pooled prevalence of severe vivax malaria and to identify factors related to poor outcome of patients who developed severe manifestation.

Prevalence of CYP2D6 Genotypes and Predicted Phenotypes in a Cohort of Cambodians at High Risk for Infections with Plasmodium vivax

May 13, 2020 - 14:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Spring MD, Lon C, Waters NC, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 11

Clinical failure of primaquine (PQ) has been demonstrated in people with CYP450 2D6 genetic polymorphisms that result in reduced or no enzyme activity. The distribution of CYP2D6 genotypes and predicted phenotypes in the Cambodian population is not well described. Surveys in other Asian countries have shown an approximate 50% prevalence of the reduced activity of the CYP2D6 allele *10, which could translate into increased risk of PQ radical cure failure and repeated relapses, making interruption of transmission and malaria elimination difficult to achieve.

Ivermectin as a novel complementary malaria control tool to reduce incidence and prevalence: a modelling study

April 6, 2020 - 08:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Slater HC, Foy BD, Smit MR, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Apr;20(4):498-508

Ivermectin is a potential new vector control tool to reduce malaria transmission. Mosquitoes feeding on a bloodmeal containing ivermectin have a reduced lifespan, meaning they are less likely to live long enough to complete sporogony and become infectious. We aimed to estimate the effect of ivermectin on malaria transmission in various scenarios of use.

Effect of Metofluthrin-Impregnated Spatial Repellent Devices Combined with New Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (Olyset® Plus) on Pyrethroid-Resistant Malaria Vectors and Malaria Prevalence: Field Trial in South-Eastern Malawi

March 30, 2020 - 10:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kawada H, Nakazawa S, Shimabukuro K, Ohashi K, Kambewa EA, Foster Pemba D
Reference: 
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 24;73(2):124-131

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) experience some operational problems that reduce their effectiveness, such as limited spaces for hanging, biting of mosquitoes outdoors, a shift of key biting time from midnight to dawn or dusk, and development of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. The concept of spatial repellency may be a countermeasure to overcome the above issues.

NOT Open Access | Dynamics of prevalence and distribution pattern of avian Plasmodium species and its vectors in diverse zoogeographical areas - A review

March 2, 2020 - 14:08 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nourani L, Zakeri S, Djadid ND
Reference: 
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 19 February 2020, 104244

Avian Plasmodium is of special interest to health care scientists and veterinarians due to the potency of causing avian malaria in non-adapted birds and their evolutionary phylogenetic relationship with human malaria species. This article aimed to provide a comprehensive list of the common avian Plasmodium parasites in the birds and mosquitoes, to specify the common Plasmodium species and lineages in the selected regions of West of Asia, East of Europe, and North of Africa/Middle East, and to determine the contribution of generalist and host-specific Plasmodium species and lineages.

Use of real-time multiplex PCR, malaria rapid diagnostic test and microscopy to investigate the prevalence of Plasmodium species among febrile hospital patients in Sierra Leone

February 25, 2020 - 15:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tomasz A. Leski, Chris Rowe Taitt, David A. Stenger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:84, 21 February 2020

Malaria continues to affect over 200 million individuals every year, especially children in Africa. Rapid and sensitive detection and identification of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for treating patients and monitoring of control efforts. Compared to traditional diagnostic methods such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), DNA based methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer significantly higher sensitivity, definitive discrimination of Plasmodium species, and detection of mixed infections. While PCR is not currently optimized for routine diagnostics, its role in epidemiological studies is increasing as the world moves closer toward regional and eventually global malaria elimination. This study demonstrates the field use of a novel, ambient temperature-stabilized, multiplexed PCR assay in a small hospital setting in Sierra Leone.

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

February 3, 2020 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Loick P. Kojom and Vineeta Singh
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:46, 28 January 2020

In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India.

Prevalence of malaria and its risk factors in Sabah Malaysia

December 2, 2019 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abdul Rahman R, Aniza I, Zetty Sofia MZ
Reference: 
International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2019 Nov 27. pii: S1201-9712(19)30466-7.

This study aims to determine the prevalence of malaria in Sabah and its potential risk factors.

Country: 

Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Amazonian Border Context (French Guiana-Brazil): Associated Factors and Spatial Distribution

November 27, 2019 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mosnier E, Roux E, Musset L, et al.
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2019, pp. 1–12

To implement future malaria elimination strategies in French Guiana, a characterization of the infectious reservoir is recommended. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2017 in the French Guianese municipality of St Georges de l’Oyapock, located along the Brazilian border. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was determined using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Country: 

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