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malaria elimination

Guest editorial: “End Malaria for Good”- a few key messages based on the Cambodian experience

June 23, 2016 - 07:27 -- Bart G.J. Knols
The editorial below was contributed by Sara E Canavati and Jack S Richards. Contact details below.
World Malaria Day (WMD) is an international observance established in 2007 and commemorated every year on 25 April to recognize global efforts to control malaria. The theme for 2016 was “End Malaria For Good”, which focused on malaria elimination. Following the great progress made under the Millennium Development Goals, it is important to continue building on this success as we transition into the Sustainable Development Goals [1] and the recently launched Global Technical Strategy for Malaria (GTS) [2]. The aim of the piece is to briefly reflect on WMD 2016 and consider a few key operational issues on malaria elimination that may lie ahead for the coming year.

Patterns of human exposure to malaria vectors in Zanzibar and implications for malaria elimination efforts

June 26, 2020 - 15:11 -- Open Access
April Monroe, Dickson Msaky, Fredros Okumu, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:212, 22 June 2020

Zanzibar provides a good case study for malaria elimination. The islands have experienced a dramatic reduction in malaria burden since the introduction of effective vector control interventions and case management. Malaria prevalence has now been maintained below 1% for the past decade and the islands can feasibly aim for elimination.

Early transmission of sensitive strain slows down emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax

June 23, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Ayala MJC, Villela DAM
PLoS Comput Biol 16(6): e1007945

The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.

Comparison of real time and malachite-green based loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for the detection of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum

June 15, 2020 - 15:10 -- Open Access
Barazorda KA, Salas CJ, Bishop DK, Lucchi N, Valdivia HO
PLoS ONE 15(6): e0234263

The current context of malaria elimination requires urgent development and implementation of highly sensitive and specific methods for prompt detection and treatment of malaria parasites. Such methods should overcome current delays in diagnosis, allow the detection of low-density infections and address the difficulties in accessing remote endemic communities. In this study, we assessed the performance of the RealAmp and malachite-green loop mediated isothermal amplification (MG-LAMP) methodologies, using microscopy and conventional nested-PCR as reference techniques.

The Equatoguinean Malaria Vaccine Initiative: From the Launching of a Clinical Research Platform to Malaria Elimination Planning in Central West Africa

May 29, 2020 - 14:27 -- Open Access
Billingsley PF, Maas CD, Ayekaba MO, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 26

Fifteen years of investment in malaria control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG), dramatically reduced malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, but the impact has plateaued. To progress toward elimination, EG is investing in the development of a malaria vaccine. We assessed the unique public–private partnership that has had such a significant impact on malaria on Bioko Island and now added a major effort on malaria vaccine development.

Scaling up malaria elimination management and leadership: a pilot in three provinces in Zimbabwe, 2016–2018

May 20, 2020 - 10:27 -- Open Access
Amanda Marr Chung, Peter Case, Joseph Mberikunashe, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:185, 20 May 2020

Focus for improved malaria programme performance is often placed on the technical challenges, while operational issues are neglected. Many of the operational challenges that inhibit malaria programme effectiveness can be addressed by improving communication and coordination, increasing accountability, maintaining motivation, providing adequate training and supervision, and removing bureaucratic silos.

Determinants of MDA impact and designing MDAs towards malaria elimination

April 18, 2020 - 13:51 -- Open Access
Gao B, Saralamba S, Lubell Y, White LJ, Dondorp AM, Aguas R
eLife 2020;9:e51773

Malaria remains at the forefront of scientific research and global political and funding agendas. Malaria models have consistently oversimplified how mass interventions are implemented. Here, we present an individual based, spatially explicit model of P. falciparum malaria transmission that includes all the programmatic implementation details of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns.

Malaria situation in a clear area of Iran: an approach for the better understanding of the health service providers’ readiness and challenges for malaria elimination in clear areas

March 23, 2020 - 11:33 -- Open Access
Hosein Azizi, Elham Davtalab-Esmaeili, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Maryam Zeinolabedini, Yagoub Mirzaei and Mohammad Mirzapour
Malaria Journal 2020 19:114, 18 March 2020

Malaria mortality and morbidity have decreased in recent years. Malaria elimination (ME) and effective efforts to achieve ME is one of the most important priorities for health systems in countries in the elimination phase. In very low transmission areas, the ME programme is faced with serious challenges. This study aimed to assess the trend while getting a better understanding of Health Service Providers’ (HSPs) readiness and challenges for ME in a clear area of Iran.

The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Cape Verdean population in the context of malaria elimination

March 19, 2020 - 08:44 -- Open Access
DePina AJ, Pires CM, Andrade AJB, Dia AK, Moreira AL, Ferreira MCM, Correia AJ, Faye O, Seck I, Niang EHA
PLoS One. 2020 Mar 16; 15(3):e0229574

Cabo Verde aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. In the country, Plasmodium falciparum had been the main parasite responsible for indigenous cases and primaquine is the first line treatment of cases and for radical cure. However, the lack of knowledge of the national prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may be one of the constraints to the malaria elimination process. Hence, this first study determines the prevalence of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) in the archipelago.

NOT Open Access | Tafenoquine: A step toward malaria elimination

February 24, 2020 - 14:18 -- NOT Open Access
Lu KY, Derbyshire ER
Biochemistry. 2020 Feb 19

There is a pressing need for compounds with broad-spectrum activity against malaria parasites at different life cycle stages to achieve malaria elimination. However, this goal cannot be accomplished without targeting the tenacious dormant liver stage hypnozoite that causes multiple relapses after the first episode of illness. In search for the magic bullet to radically cure Plasmodium vivax malaria, tafenoquine outperformed other candidate drugs and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2018. Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline that inhibits multiple life stages of different Plasmodium species.


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