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Bliss' and Loewe's additive and synergistic effects in Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition by AMA1-RON2L, RH5, RIPR and CyRPA antibody combinations

July 20, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Azasi Y, Gallagher SK, Diouf A, Dabbs RA, Jin J, Mian SY, Narum DL, Long CA, Gaur D, Draper SJ, Fay MP, Miller LH, Miura K
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 16; 10(1):11802

Plasmodium invasion of red blood cells involves malaria proteins, such as reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5), RH5 interacting protein (RIPR), cysteine-rich protective antigen (CyRPA), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2), all of which are blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. So far, vaccines containing AMA1 alone have been unsuccessful in clinical trials.

NOT Open Access | Effect of immune regulatory pathways after immunization with GMZ2 malaria vaccine candidate in healthy lifelong malaria-exposed adults

May 13, 2020 - 13:57 -- NOT Open Access
Nouatin O, Ateba Ngoa U, Adegnika AA, et al.
Vaccine. 2020 May 5. pii: S0264-410X(20)30540-5

Despite appreciable immunogenicity in malaria-naive populations, many candidate malaria vaccines are considerably less immunogenic in malaria-exposed populations. This could reflect induction of immune regulatory mechanisms involving Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), regulatory T (Treg), and regulatory B (Breg) cells. Here, we addressed the question whether there is correlation between these immune regulatory pathways and both plasmablast frequencies and vaccine-specific IgG concentrations.

A novel vaccine target for malaria

May 13, 2020 - 13:46 -- Open Access
Wrighton KH
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020 May 6

Malaria is a leading cause of death in children; however, developing an effective vaccine has been challenging. Raj et al. now show that Plasmodium falciparum glutamic-acid-rich protein (PfGARP), an 80 kDa antigen expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by P. falciparum, is a malaria vaccine candidate for specifically targeting the blood stage of P. falciparum.

The RH5-CyRPA-Ripr Complex as a Malaria Vaccine Target

May 5, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Ragotte RJ, Higgins MK, Draper SJ
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Apr 28. pii: S1471-4922(20)30099-4

Despite ongoing efforts, a highly effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum remains elusive. Vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic stages of the P. falciparum life cycle are the most advanced to date, affording moderate levels of efficacy in field trials.

Not Open Access | WHO's malaria vaccine study represents a "serious breach of international ethical standards"

March 3, 2020 - 12:35 -- NOT Open Access
Doshi P
BMJ. 2020 Feb 26;368:m734

Experts are troubled by the apparent lack of informed consent in a large, cluster randomised study of the malaria vaccine. Peter Doshi reports

Evaluation of Plasmodium vivax HAP2 as a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate

March 2, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Qiu Y, Zhao Y, Liu F, Ye B, Zhao Z, Thongpoon S, Roobsoong W, Sattabongkot J, Cui L, Fan Q, Cao Y
Vaccine. 2020 Feb 21. pii: S0264-410X(20)30184-5

Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy to interfere with the transmission of malaria. To date, only limited TBV candidate antigens have been identified for Plasmodium vivax. HAP2 is a gamete membrane fusion protein, with homology to the class II viral fusion proteins. Herein we reported the characterization of the PvHAP2 for its potential as a TBV candidate for P. vivax.

Identification, molecular characterization and expression of aminopeptidase N-1 (APN-1) from Anopheles stephensi in SF9 cell line as a candidate molecule for developing a vaccine that interrupt malaria transmission

February 24, 2020 - 14:27 -- Open Access
Javad Dadgar Pakdel, Sedigheh Zakeri, Abbasali Raz and Navid Dinparast Djadid
Malaria Journal 2020 19:79, 19 February 2020

According to the World Health Organization reports, billions of people around the world are at risk for malaria disease and it is important to consider the preventive strategies for protecting the people that are living in high risk areas. One of the main reasons of disease survival is diversity of vectors and parasites in different malaria regions that have their specific features, behaviour and biology. Therefore, specific regional strategies are necessary for successful control of malaria. One of the tools that needs to be developed for elimination and prevention of reintroduction of malaria is a vaccine that interrupt malaria transmission (VIMTs). VIMT is a broad concept that should be adjusted to the biological characteristics of the disease in each region. One type of VIMT is a vector-based vaccine that affects the sexual stage of Plasmodium life cycle. According to recent studies, the aminopeptidase N-1 of Anopheles gambiae (AgAPN-1) is as a potent vector-based VIMT with considerable inhibition activity against the sexual stage of Plasmodium parasite.


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