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NOT Open Access | Communities and Clinical Trials: A Case Study from the RTS,S Malaria Vaccine Trials in Eastern Africa

August 31, 2020 - 15:06 -- NOT Open Access
Wyss-van den Berg M, Ogutu B, Sewankambo NK, Merten S, Biller-Andorno N, Tanner M
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2020 Aug 26:1556264620951384

When clinical trials enter human communities, two complex systems merge-creating challenges for the clinical trial team and the local human community. This is of particular relevance for clinical trials in low-resource settings where the resource scarcity can intensify existing inequities. Here we present a case study of a phase III malaria vaccine clinical trial.

NOT Open Access | Virus-like particles expressing Plasmodium berghei MSP-8 induce protection against P. berghei infection

August 5, 2020 - 14:10 -- NOT Open Access
Lee SH, Chu KB, Kang HJ, Basak S, Kim MJ, Park H, Jin H, Moon EK, Quan FS
Parasite Immunol. 2020 Aug 1:e12781

Merozoite surface protein 8 (MSP‐8) of Plasmodium parasites play an important role in erythrocyte invasion and is a potential malaria vaccine candidate.

Structure and function of a malaria transmission blocking vaccine targeting Pfs230 and Pfs230-Pfs48/45 proteins

July 27, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Singh K, Burkhardt M, Narum DL, et al.
Commun Biol. 2020 Jul 24;3(1):395

Proteins Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 are Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking (TB) vaccine candidates that form a membrane-bound protein complex on gametes. The biological role of Pfs230 or the Pfs230-Pfs48/45 complex remains poorly understood. Here, we present the crystal structure of recombinant Pfs230 domain 1 (Pfs230D1M), a 6-cysteine domain, in complex with the Fab fragment of a TB monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4F12. We observed the arrangement of Pfs230 on the surface of macrogametes differed from that on microgametes, and that Pfs230, with no known membrane anchor, may exist on the membrane surface in the absence of Pfs48/45.

Commentary in reply to a publication on Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine development

July 21, 2020 - 15:32 -- Open Access
François P. Roman, Margherita Coccia and Lode Schuerman
Malaria Journal 2020 19:261, 20 July 2020

We have read the publication of Molina-Franky and colleagues on Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine development (Malaria Journal, 2020;19:56).

Bliss' and Loewe's additive and synergistic effects in Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition by AMA1-RON2L, RH5, RIPR and CyRPA antibody combinations

July 20, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Azasi Y, Gallagher SK, Diouf A, Dabbs RA, Jin J, Mian SY, Narum DL, Long CA, Gaur D, Draper SJ, Fay MP, Miller LH, Miura K
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 16; 10(1):11802

Plasmodium invasion of red blood cells involves malaria proteins, such as reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5), RH5 interacting protein (RIPR), cysteine-rich protective antigen (CyRPA), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2), all of which are blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. So far, vaccines containing AMA1 alone have been unsuccessful in clinical trials.

NOT Open Access | Effect of immune regulatory pathways after immunization with GMZ2 malaria vaccine candidate in healthy lifelong malaria-exposed adults

May 13, 2020 - 13:57 -- NOT Open Access
Nouatin O, Ateba Ngoa U, Adegnika AA, et al.
Vaccine. 2020 May 5. pii: S0264-410X(20)30540-5

Despite appreciable immunogenicity in malaria-naive populations, many candidate malaria vaccines are considerably less immunogenic in malaria-exposed populations. This could reflect induction of immune regulatory mechanisms involving Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), regulatory T (Treg), and regulatory B (Breg) cells. Here, we addressed the question whether there is correlation between these immune regulatory pathways and both plasmablast frequencies and vaccine-specific IgG concentrations.

A novel vaccine target for malaria

May 13, 2020 - 13:46 -- Open Access
Wrighton KH
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020 May 6

Malaria is a leading cause of death in children; however, developing an effective vaccine has been challenging. Raj et al. now show that Plasmodium falciparum glutamic-acid-rich protein (PfGARP), an 80 kDa antigen expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by P. falciparum, is a malaria vaccine candidate for specifically targeting the blood stage of P. falciparum.

The RH5-CyRPA-Ripr Complex as a Malaria Vaccine Target

May 5, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Ragotte RJ, Higgins MK, Draper SJ
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Apr 28. pii: S1471-4922(20)30099-4

Despite ongoing efforts, a highly effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum remains elusive. Vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic stages of the P. falciparum life cycle are the most advanced to date, affording moderate levels of efficacy in field trials.


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