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vaccine

NOT Open Access | Update on malaria

November 19, 2020 - 12:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Varo R, Chaccour C, Bassat Q
Reference: 
Med Clin (Barc). 2020 Nov 13;155(9):395-402

Despite recent successful efforts to reduce the global malaria burden, this disease remains a significant global health problem. Only in 2018, malaria caused 228 million clinical episodes, 2-4 million of which were severe malaria cases, and 405,000 were fatal. Most of the malaria attributable mortality occurred among children in sub-Saharan Africa.

NOT Open Access | A chimeric Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein Antibody Recognises and Blocks Erythrocytic P. cynomolgi Berok Merozoites In Vitro

November 18, 2020 - 12:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shen FH, Ong JJY, Sun YF, Lei Y, Chu RL, Kassegne K, Fu HT, Jin C, Han ET, Russell B, Han JH, Cheng Y
Reference: 
Infect Immun. 2020 Nov 16:IAI.00645-20

Research on erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax merozoite antigens is critical for identifying potential vaccine candidates in reducing vivax disease. However, many P. vivax studies are constrained by its inability to undergo long-term culture in vitro Conserved across all Plasmodium spp, merozoite surface proteins are essential for invasion into erythrocytes and highly expressed on erythrocytic merozoites, thus making it an ideal vaccine candidate.

Diversify and Conquer: The Vaccine Escapism of Plasmodium falciparum

November 11, 2020 - 14:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pance A
Reference: 
Microorganisms. 2020 Nov 7;8(11):E1748

Over the last century, a great deal of effort and resources have been poured into the development of vaccines to protect against malaria, particularly targeting the most widely spread and deadly species of the human-infecting parasites: Plasmodium falciparum. Many of the known proteins the parasite uses to invade human cells have been tested as vaccine candidates.

Characterization of a Plasmodium falciparum PHISTc protein, PF3D7_0801000, in blood- stage malaria parasites

November 7, 2020 - 12:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nagaoka H, Kanoi BN, Morita M, Nakata T, Palacpac NMQ, Egwang TG, Horii T, Tsuboi T, Takashima E
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2020 Nov 1:102240

During intraerythrocytic development Plasmodium falciparum deploys numerous proteins to support erythrocyte invasion, intracellular growth and development, as well as host immune evasion. Since these proteins are key for parasite intraerythrocytic survival and propagation, they represent attractive targets for antimalarial vaccines. In this study we sought to characterize a member of the PHISTc family of proteins, PF3D7_0801000, as a potential vaccine target.

Genetic polymorphism of vir genes of Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar

November 4, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Na BK, Kim TS, Lin K, Baek MC, Chung DI, Hong Y, Goo YK
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 31:102233

The Plasmodium vivax variant proteins encoded by vir genes are highly polymorphic antigens and are considered as one of key proteins of P. vivax for host immune evasion via antigenic variations. Because genetic diversity of these antigens is a critical hurdle in the development of an effective vaccine, understanding the genetic nature of the vir genes in natural population is important.

Leveraging the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system to accelerate malaria vaccine development

November 4, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kanoi B, Nagaoka H, Morita M, Tsuboi T, Takashima E
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 30:102224

Vaccines against infectious diseases have had great successes in the history of public health. Major breakthroughs have occurred in the development of vaccine-based interventions against viral and bacterial pathogens through the application of classical vaccine design strategies. In contrast the development of a malaria vaccine has been slow. Plasmodium falciparum malaria affects millions of people with nearly half of the world population at risk of infection.

Modelling the roles of antibody titre and avidity in protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection following RTS,S/AS01 vaccination

November 3, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thompson HA, Hogan AB, Walker PGT, White MT, Cunnington AJ, Ockenhouse CF, Ghani AC
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Nov 3;38(47):7498-7507

Anti-circumsporozoite antibody titres have been established as an essential indicator for evaluating the immunogenicity and protective capacity of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine.

A DNA Vaccine Encoding Plasmodium falciparum PfRH5 in Cationic Liposomes for Dermal Tattooing Immunization

October 31, 2020 - 09:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fotoran WL, Kleiber N, Glitz C, Wunderlich G
Reference: 
Vaccines (Basel). 2020 Oct 20;8(4):E619

Vaccines are the primary means of controlling and preventing pandemics and outbreaks of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, a major drawback of naked DNA-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity and the amount of plasmid DNA necessary to elicit a response. Nano-sized liposomes can overcome this limitation, enhancing both nucleic acid stability and targeting to cells after administration.

Not Open Access | Understanding vaccine-elicited protective immunity against pre-erythrocytic stage malaria in endemic regions

October 21, 2020 - 08:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mo AXY, Pesce J, Augustine AD, Bodmer JL, Breen J, Leitner W, Hall BF
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Oct 15:S0264-410X(20)31253-6

Recent malaria vaccine trials in endemic areas have yielded disparate results compared to studies conducted in non-endemic areas. A workshop was organized to discuss the differential pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine (Pre-E-Vac) efficacies and underlying protective immunity under various conditions. It was concluded that many factors, including vaccine technology platforms, host genetics or physiologic conditions, and parasite and mosquito vector variations, may all contribute to Pre-E-Vac efficacy.

Population genetic and biophysical evidences reveal that purifying selection shapes the genetic landscape of Plasmodium falciparum RH ligands in Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, India

October 15, 2020 - 08:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharmistha Ghoshal, Pramita Chowdhury, Sanhita Ray, Mitashree Mitra, Sumana Datta Kanjilal, Srikanta Sen, Anjan Kr. Dasgupta and Sanghamitra Sengupta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:367,14 October 2020

Reticulocyte binding protein-like homologs (RHs) are currently being evaluated as anti-erythrocytic stage vaccine targets against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Present study explores the possible evolutionary drivers shaping the genetic organization of Pfrhs in Indian parasite population. It simultaneously evaluates a putative gain-of-function variant of PfRH5, a keystone member of PfRH family.

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