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NOT Open Access | Plasmodium's journey through the Anopheles mosquito: A comprehensive review

December 23, 2020 - 09:45 -- NOT Open Access
Singh M, Trivedi S, Bhutani K, Singh G, Dubey A, Rapalli CK
Biochimie. 2020 Dec 17:S0300-9084(20)30330-8

The malaria parasite has an extraordinary ability to evade the immune system due to which the development of a malaria vaccine is a challenging task. Extensive research on malarial infection in the human host particularly during the liver stage has resulted in the discovery of potential candidate vaccines including RTS,S/AS01 and R21. However, complete elimination of malaria would require a holistic multi-component approach. In line with this, under the World Health Organization's PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI), the research focus has shifted towards the sexual stages of malaria in the mosquito host.

Merozoite Surface Protein 2 Adsorbed onto Acetalated Dextran Microparticles for Malaria Vaccination

December 15, 2020 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Stiepel RT, Batty CJ, MacRaild CA, Norton RS, Bachelder E, Ainslie KM
Int J Pharm. 2020 Dec 9:120168

Malaria remains a global health threat, with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite current interventions. The human disease is caused by five different parasitic species, with Plasmodium falciparum being the deadliest. As a result, vaccine research against P. falciparum is a global priority. Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a promising vaccine antigen as MSP2-specific antibodies have been shown previously to be protective against malaria infection.

Building momentum for malaria vaccine research and development: key considerations

November 24, 2020 - 14:47 -- Open Access
Chetan E. Chitnis, David Schellenberg, Pedro Alonso, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:421, 23 November 2020

To maintain momentum towards improved malaria control and elimination, a vaccine would be a key addition to the intervention toolkit.

Two approaches are recommended: (1) promote the development and short to medium term deployment of first generation vaccine candidates and (2) support innovation and discovery to identify and develop highly effective, long-lasting and affordable next generation malaria vaccines.

Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Radiation-Attenuated and Chemo-Attenuated PfSPZ Vaccines in Equatoguinean Adults

November 19, 2020 - 12:58 -- Open Access
Jongo SA, Urbano V, Hoffman SL, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 16

Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) Vaccine (radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ) and PfSPZ-CVac (infectious, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ administered to subjects taking weekly chloroquine chemoprophylaxis) have shown vaccine efficacies (VEs) of 100% against homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in nonimmune adults. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite-CVac has never been assessed against CHMI in African vaccinees.

NOT Open Access | Update on malaria

November 19, 2020 - 12:56 -- NOT Open Access
Varo R, Chaccour C, Bassat Q
Med Clin (Barc). 2020 Nov 13;155(9):395-402

Despite recent successful efforts to reduce the global malaria burden, this disease remains a significant global health problem. Only in 2018, malaria caused 228 million clinical episodes, 2-4 million of which were severe malaria cases, and 405,000 were fatal. Most of the malaria attributable mortality occurred among children in sub-Saharan Africa.

NOT Open Access | A chimeric Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein Antibody Recognises and Blocks Erythrocytic P. cynomolgi Berok Merozoites In Vitro

November 18, 2020 - 12:13 -- NOT Open Access
Shen FH, Ong JJY, Sun YF, Lei Y, Chu RL, Kassegne K, Fu HT, Jin C, Han ET, Russell B, Han JH, Cheng Y
Infect Immun. 2020 Nov 16:IAI.00645-20

Research on erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax merozoite antigens is critical for identifying potential vaccine candidates in reducing vivax disease. However, many P. vivax studies are constrained by its inability to undergo long-term culture in vitro Conserved across all Plasmodium spp, merozoite surface proteins are essential for invasion into erythrocytes and highly expressed on erythrocytic merozoites, thus making it an ideal vaccine candidate.

Diversify and Conquer: The Vaccine Escapism of Plasmodium falciparum

November 11, 2020 - 14:14 -- Open Access
Pance A
Microorganisms. 2020 Nov 7;8(11):E1748

Over the last century, a great deal of effort and resources have been poured into the development of vaccines to protect against malaria, particularly targeting the most widely spread and deadly species of the human-infecting parasites: Plasmodium falciparum. Many of the known proteins the parasite uses to invade human cells have been tested as vaccine candidates.

Characterization of a Plasmodium falciparum PHISTc protein, PF3D7_0801000, in blood- stage malaria parasites

November 7, 2020 - 12:38 -- Open Access
Nagaoka H, Kanoi BN, Morita M, Nakata T, Palacpac NMQ, Egwang TG, Horii T, Tsuboi T, Takashima E
Parasitol Int. 2020 Nov 1:102240

During intraerythrocytic development Plasmodium falciparum deploys numerous proteins to support erythrocyte invasion, intracellular growth and development, as well as host immune evasion. Since these proteins are key for parasite intraerythrocytic survival and propagation, they represent attractive targets for antimalarial vaccines. In this study we sought to characterize a member of the PHISTc family of proteins, PF3D7_0801000, as a potential vaccine target.

Genetic polymorphism of vir genes of Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar

November 4, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Na BK, Kim TS, Lin K, Baek MC, Chung DI, Hong Y, Goo YK
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 31:102233

The Plasmodium vivax variant proteins encoded by vir genes are highly polymorphic antigens and are considered as one of key proteins of P. vivax for host immune evasion via antigenic variations. Because genetic diversity of these antigens is a critical hurdle in the development of an effective vaccine, understanding the genetic nature of the vir genes in natural population is important.

Leveraging the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system to accelerate malaria vaccine development

November 4, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Kanoi B, Nagaoka H, Morita M, Tsuboi T, Takashima E
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 30:102224

Vaccines against infectious diseases have had great successes in the history of public health. Major breakthroughs have occurred in the development of vaccine-based interventions against viral and bacterial pathogens through the application of classical vaccine design strategies. In contrast the development of a malaria vaccine has been slow. Plasmodium falciparum malaria affects millions of people with nearly half of the world population at risk of infection.


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