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vaccine

Malaria vaccine roller coaster

October 16, 2021 - 20:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nkumama IN, Osier FHA
Reference: 
Nat Microbiol. 2021 Oct 11

Malaria vaccine development has been characterised by excitement and disappointment in equal measure. Candidates that have shown promise in pre-clinical animal models and phase 1/2 clinical trials in volunteers who are malaria naive typically do not make the grade when tested in malaria-endemic populations.

NOT Open Access | patiotemporal Dynamic of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine Target Antigens in Senegal

October 16, 2021 - 20:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Diallo MA, L'Ollivier C, Diongue K, Badiane AS, Kodio A, Tall ML, Sy M, Seck MC, Sene D, Ndiaye M, Fall FB, Ranque S, Ndiaye D
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 11:tpmd210369

The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine confers only moderate protection against malaria. Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine depends upon the parasite population genetics, specifically regarding the circumsporozoite protein haplotypes in the population. We investigated Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) gene sequences from two endemic sites in 2018 in Senegal.

Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum: Friend or Foe

October 12, 2021 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tijani MK, Lugaajju A, Persson KEM
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2021 Jul 2;10(7):832

Antibodies are central to acquired immunity against malaria. Plasmodium falciparum elicits antibody responses against many of its protein components, but there is also formation of antibodies against different parts of the red blood cells, in which the parasites spend most of their time. In the absence of a decisive intervention such as a vaccine, people living in malaria endemic regions largely depend on naturally acquired antibodies for protection.

NOT Open Access | Multi-functional antibody profiling for malaria vaccine development and evaluation

September 23, 2021 - 10:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Opi DH, Kurtovic L, Chan JA, Horton JL, Feng G, Beeson JG
Reference: 
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Sep 17

A vaccine would greatly accelerate current global efforts towards malaria elimination. While a partially efficacious vaccine has been achieved for Plasmodium falciparum, a major bottleneck in developing highly efficacious vaccines is a lack of reliable correlates of protection, and the limited application of assays that quantify functional immune responses to evaluate and down-select vaccine candidates in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.

A universal vaccine candidate against Plasmodium vivax malaria confers protective immunity against the three PvCSP alleles

September 15, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gimenez AM, Salman AM, Marques RF, López-Camacho C, Harrison K, Kim YC, Janse CJ, Soares IS, Reyes-Sandoval A
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 9;11(1):17928

Malaria is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in regions with tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Among the species of Plasmodium causing human malaria, P. vivax is the second most prevalent and the most geographically widespread species. A major target of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine is the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP). In previous studies, we fused two recombinant proteins representing three allelic variants of PvCSP (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) to the mumps virus nucleocapsid protein to enhance immune responses against PvCSP.

A brief history of selected malaria vaccine and medical interventions pursued by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and partners, 1943-2021

September 1, 2021 - 17:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meier L, Casagrande G, Abdulla S, Masanja H
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Aug 28:106115

In order to be successful in global health today, all the long-established European tropical research institutes had to undergo a transition which can be described as "hunter-gatherer" and descriptive approaches during colonial and postcolonial times to a deeper understanding of infection biology and finally to public health interventions from which populations at large can benefit. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Swiss Tropical Institute (today: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Swiss TPH) based in Basel too has changed its focus from individual medicine to a public health context.

Structural insights into global mutations in the ligand-binding domain of VAR2CSA and its implications on placental malaria vaccine

September 1, 2021 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gill J, Chakraborti S, Bharti P, Sharma A
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 24:S1201-9712(21)00687-1

Placental malaria is a public health burden particularly in Africa as it causes severe symptoms and results in stillbirths or maternal deaths. Plasmodium falciparum protein VAR2CSA drives placental malaria (PM) in pregnant women by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the placenta. VAR2CSA is a primary vaccine candidate for PM with two vaccines based on it already under clinical trials.

NOT Open Access | Genetic diversity and expression profile of Plasmodium falciparum Pf34 gene supports its immunogenicity

August 25, 2021 - 16:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Krishna S, Bhandari S, Vishwakarma AK, Verma AK, Singh MP, Sharma A, Singh N, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Curr Res Transl Med. 2021 Aug 20;69(4):103308

Genetic variation is one of the major obstacles in the development of effective vaccines. A multivalent malaria vaccine is required to increase efficacy and confer long term protection. In this context, we analysed the genetic diversity, expression profile, and immune response against Pf34.

NOT Open Access | Antibody acts like short-term malaria vaccine

August 25, 2021 - 15:50 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Cohen J
Reference: 
Science. 2021 Aug 20;373(6557):843

A powerful new weapon could one day join the global fight against malaria, especially to help people who need temporary protection from the deadly disease. Drugs and bed nets can to some extent already protect against the disease, which still sickens at least 200 million people a year and kills an estimated 400,000. Vaccines have also shown some promise.

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