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NOT Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum Pf77 and male development gene 1 as vaccine antigens that induce potent transmission-reducing antibodies

June 16, 2021 - 14:59 -- NOT Open Access
Tripathi AK, Oakley MS, Kumar S, et al.
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jun 9;13(597):eabg2112

Malaria vaccines that disrupt the Plasmodium life cycle in mosquitoes and reduce parasite transmission in endemic areas are termed transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). Despite decades of research, there are only a few Plasmodium falciparum antigens that indisputably and reproducibly demonstrate transmission-blocking immunity. So far, only two TBV candidates have advanced to phase 1/2 clinical testing with limited success.

NOT Open Access | Immunogenicity and structural efficacy of P41 of Plasmodium sp. as potential cross-species blood-stage malaria vaccine

June 9, 2021 - 14:14 -- NOT Open Access
Ramanto KN, Nurdiansyah R
Comput Biol Chem. 2021 Jun;92:107493

Vaccine based strategies offer a promising future in malaria control by generating protective immunity against natural infection. However, vaccine development is hindered by the Plasmodium sp. genetic diversity. Previously, we have shown P41 protein from 6-Cysteine shared by Plasmodium sp. and could be used for cross-species anti-malaria vaccines.

Structure of the merozoite surface protein 1 from Plasmodium falciparum

June 9, 2021 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Dijkman PM, Marzluf T, Zhang Y, Chang SS, Helm D, Lanzer M, Bujard H, Kudryashev M
Sci Adv. 2021 Jun 2;7(23):eabg0465

The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is the most abundant protein on the surface of the erythrocyte-invading Plasmodium merozoite, the causative agent of malaria. MSP-1 is essential for merozoite formation, entry into and escape from erythrocytes, and is a promising vaccine candidate. Here, we present monomeric and dimeric structures of full-length MSP-1. MSP-1 adopts an unusual fold with a large central cavity.

PfSPZ-CVac efficacy against malaria increases from 0% to 75% when administered in the absence of erythrocyte stage parasitemia: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with controlled human malaria infection

June 1, 2021 - 12:11 -- Open Access
Murphy SC, Deye GA, Jackson LA, et al.
PLoS Pathog. 2021 May 28;17(5):e1009594

PfSPZ-CVac combines 'PfSPZ Challenge', which consists of infectious Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ), with concurrent antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. In a previously-published PfSPZ-CVac study, three doses of 5.12x104 PfSPZ-CVac given 28 days apart had 100% vaccine efficacy (VE) against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 10 weeks after the last immunization, while the same dose given as three injections five days apart had 63% VE. Here, we conducted a dose escalation trial of similarly condensed schedules.

Baseline Asymptomatic Malaria Infection and Immunogenicity of rVSVdeltaG-ZEBOV-GP Vaccine: The Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine Against Ebola (STRIVE)

May 25, 2021 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Mahon BE, Simon J, Widdowson MA, Samai M, Rogier E, Legardy-Williams J, Liu K, Schiffer J, Lange J, DeByle C, Pinner R, Schuchat A, Slutsker L, Goldstein S
J Infect Dis. 2021 May 20:jiab243

The effect of malaria infection on rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP (ERVEBO®) immunogenicity is unknown.

Not Open Access | Meeting report: WHO consultation on malaria vaccine development, Geneva, 15-16 July 2019

May 25, 2021 - 14:57 -- NOT Open Access
Vekemans J, Schellenberg D, Benns S, O'Brien K, Alonso P
Vaccine. 2021 May 21;39(22):2907-2916

Considerable progress has been made in malaria control in the last two decades, but progress has stalled in the last few years. New tools are needed to achieve public health goals in malaria control and elimination. A first generation vaccine, RTS,S/AS01, is currently being evaluated as it undergoes pilot implementation through routine health systems in parts of three African countries.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate MSP1 displays conserved B-cell epitope despite high genetic diversity

May 25, 2021 - 14:54 -- NOT Open Access
Ghoshal S, Kanjilal SD, Sengupta S
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 May 19:104929

The polymorphic nature of merozoite surface protein 1(MSP1) raises doubts whether it may serve as a vaccine target against Plasmodium vivax malaria. This study analyses the impact of genetic variability on the epitope organization of different Pvmsp1 blocks. Ten blood samples collected from P. vivax infected malaria patients from West Bengal, India were used to analyze sequence and antigenic diversities of block 2 region of Pvmsp1.

A guide to investigating immune responses elicited by whole-sporozoite pre-erythrocytic vaccines against malaria

May 18, 2021 - 13:31 -- Open Access
Moita D, Nunes-Cabaço H, Mendes AM, Prudêncio M
FEBS J. 2021 May 16

In the last few decades, considerable efforts have been made towards the development of efficient vaccines against malaria. Whole-sporozoite (Wsp) vaccines, which induce efficient immune responses against the pre-erythrocytic (PE) stages (sporozoites and liver forms) of Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, are among the most promising immunization strategies tested until present.

Some lessons for malaria from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

May 6, 2021 - 07:21 -- Open Access
Matiana González-Silva and N. Regina Rabinovich
Malaria Journal 2021 20:210, 1 May 2021

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988 with the aim of completely clearing wild polio viruses by 2000. More than three decades later, the goal has not been achieved, although spectacular advances have been made, with wild polio virus reported in only 2 countries in 2019. In spite of such progress, novel challenges have been added to the equation, most importantly outbreaks of vaccine-derived polio cases resulting from reversion to neurovirulence of attenuated vaccine virus, and insufficient coverage of vaccination.


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