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Africa

NOT Open Access | Baseline and multinormal distribution of ex vivo susceptibilities of Plasmodium falciparum to methylene blue in Africa, 2013-18

May 19, 2020 - 14:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gendrot M, Madamet M, Mosnier J, Fonta I, Amalvict R, Benoit N, Briolant S, Pradines B
Reference: 
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 May 14:dkaa174

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to most antimalarial compounds has emerged in Southeast Asia and spread to Africa. In this context, the development of new antimalarial drugs is urgent.

Shifting transmission risk for malaria in Africa with climate change: a framework for planning and intervention

May 4, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sadie J. Ryan, Catherine A. Lippi and Fernanda Zermoglio
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:170, 1 May 2020

Malaria continues to be a disease of massive burden in Africa, and the public health resources targeted at surveillance, prevention, control, and intervention comprise large outlays of expense. Malaria transmission is largely constrained by the suitability of the climate for Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium parasite development. Thus, as climate changes, shifts in geographic locations suitable for transmission, and differing lengths of seasons of suitability will occur, which will require changes in the types and amounts of resources.

Central Nervous System Virus Infection in African Children with Cerebral Malaria

April 29, 2020 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Postels DG, Osei-Tutu L, Wilson MR, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

We aimed to identify the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) viral coinfection to illness in African children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria (CM). We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 272 children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive CM and selected CSF from 111 of these children (38 retinopathy positive, 71 retinopathy negative, 2 retinopathy unknown) for analysis by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-Label Use in Healthcare Settings

April 27, 2020 - 12:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abena PM, Decloedt EH, Nachega JB, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 22

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pandemic has spread to Africa, where nearly all countries have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although there are ongoing clinical trials of repurposed and investigational antiviral and immune-based therapies, there are as yet no scientifically proven, clinically effective pharmacological treatments for COVID-19.

Cardiovascular safety and population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria - a pooled multicentre analysis

April 23, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wattanakul T, Ogutu B, Tarning J, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Apr 20. pii: AAC.01848-19

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine has shown excellent efficacy and tolerability in malaria treatment. However, concerns have been raised of potentially harmful cardiotoxic effects associated with piperaquine. The population pharmacokinetics and cardiac effects of piperaquine were evaluated in 1,000 patients, mostly children enrolled in a multicentre trial from 10 sites in Africa.

NOT Open Access | Non-falciparum Malaria in Africa and Learning From Plasmodium vivax in Asia

April 20, 2020 - 08:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lin JT, Parr JB, Ngasala B
Reference: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 9, 1 May 2020, Pages 2018–2019

No abstract available

Performance evaluation of a prototype rapid diagnostic test for combined detection of gambiense-human African trypanosomiasis and malaria

April 10, 2020 - 16:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lumbala C, Matovu E, Sendagire H, Kazibwe AJN, Likwela JL, Muhindo Mavoko H, Kayembe S, Lutumba P, Biéler S, Van Geertruyden JP, Ndung'u JM
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(4): e0008168

Malaria is endemic in all regions where gambiense or rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is reported, and both diseases have similarities in their symptomatology. A combined test could be useful for both diseases and would facilitate integration of the screening for gambiense HAT (gHAT) and malaria diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate a combined prototype rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for gHAT and malaria.

Targeted deep amplicon sequencing of kelch 13 and cytochrome b in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from an endemic African country using the Malaria Resistance Surveillance (MaRS) protocol

March 19, 2020 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
L'Episcopia M, Kelley J, Patel D, Schmedes S, Ravishankar S, Menegon M, Perrotti E, Nurahmed AM, Talha AA, Nour BY, Lucchi N, Severini C, Talundzic E
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Mar 14; 13(1):137

Routine molecular surveillance for imported drug-resistant malaria parasites to the USA and European Union is an important public health activity. The obtained molecular data are used to help keep chemoprophylaxis and treatment guidelines up to date for persons traveling to malaria endemic countries. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a new and effective way of tracking malaria drug-resistant parasites.

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Three- versus Five-Day Artemether-Lumefantrine Regimens for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnancy in Africa

March 2, 2020 - 14:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Onyamboko MA, Hoglund RM, Lee SJ, Kabedi C, Kayembe D, Badjanga BB, Turner GDH, Jackson NV, Tarning J, McGready R, Nosten F, White NJ, Day NPJ, Fanello C
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Feb 21;64(3). pii: e01140-19

Artemether-lumefantrine antimalarial efficacy in pregnancy could be compromised by reduced drug exposure. Population-based simulations suggested that therapeutic efficacy would be improved if the treatment duration was increased. We assessed the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of an extended 5-day regimen of artemether-lumefantrine compared to the standard 3-day treatment in 48 pregnant women and 48 nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label, randomized clinical trial. Babies were assessed at birth and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.

Patients with positive malaria tests not given artemisinin-based combination therapies: a research synthesis describing under-prescription of antimalarial medicines in Africa

February 10, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shennae O’Boyle, Katia J. Bruxvoort, Heidi Hopkins, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Med 18, 17 (2020)

There has been a successful push towards parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Africa, mainly with rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), which has reduced over-prescribing of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to malaria test-negative patients. The effect on prescribing for test-positive patients has received much less attention. Malaria infection in endemic Africa is often most dangerous for young children and those in low-transmission settings. This study examined non-prescription of antimalarials for patients with malaria infection demonstrated by positive mRDT results, and in particular these groups who are most vulnerable to poor outcomes if antimalarials are not given.

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