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Africa

Prevalence of mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, and association with ex vivo susceptibility to common anti-malarial drugs against African Plasmodium falciparum isolates

June 8, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Francis Tsombeng Foguim, Hervé Bogreau, Mathieu Gendrot, Joel Mosnier, Isabelle Fonta, Nicolas Benoit, Rémy Amalvict, Marylin Madamet, Sharon Wein and Bruno Pradines
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:201, 5 June 2020

The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) is known to be involved in chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance, and more particularly the mutations on the loci 72 to 76 localized within the second exon. Additionally, new mutations (T93S, H97Y, C101F, F145I, M343L, C350R and G353V) were recently shown to be associated with in vitro reduced susceptibility to piperaquine in Asian or South American P. falciparum strains. However, very few data are available on the prevalence of these mutations and their effect on parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs, and more particularly piperaquine in Africa.

An Africa-wide genomic evolution of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus involves selective sweeps, copy number variations, gene conversion and transposons

June 8, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Weedall GD, Riveron JM, Hearn J, Irving H, Kamdem C, Fouet C, White BJ, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS Genet 16(6): e1008822

Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens to reverse recent gains in malaria control. Deciphering patterns of gene flow and resistance evolution in malaria vectors is crucial to improve control strategies and preventing malaria resurgence. A genome-wide survey of Anopheles funestus genetic diversity Africa-wide revealed evidences of a major division between southern Africa and elsewhere, associated with different population histories.

Malaria outbreak investigation in a rural area south of Zimbabwe: a case–control study

June 3, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paddington T. Mundagowa and Pugie T. Chimberengwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:197, 1 June 2020

Ninety percent of the global annual malaria mortality cases emanate from the African region. About 80–90% of malaria transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur indoors during the night. In Zimbabwe, 79% of the population are at risk of contracting the disease. Although the country has made significant progress towards malaria elimination, isolated seasonal outbreaks persistently resurface. In 2017, Beitbridge District was experiencing a second malaria outbreak within 12 months prompting the need for investigating the outbreak.

Routine data for malaria morbidity estimation in Africa: challenges and prospects

June 3, 2020 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alegana VA, Okiro EA, Snow RW
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Jun 3; 18(1):121

The burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa remains challenging to measure relying on epidemiological modelling to evaluate the impact of investments and providing an in-depth analysis of progress and trends in malaria response globally.

Adult Mosquitoes Infected with Bacteria Early in Life Have Stronger Antimicrobial Responses and More Hemocytes after Reinfection Later in Life

June 2, 2020 - 13:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Powers JC, Turangan R, Joosse BA, Hillyer JF
Reference: 
Insects. 2020 May 28; 11(6):E331

The immunological strategies employed by insects to overcome infection vary with the type of infection and may change with experience. We investigated how a bacterial infection in the hemocoel of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, prepares the immune system to face a subsequent bacterial infection. For this, adult female mosquitoes were separated into three groups-unmanipulated, injured, or infected with Escherichia coli-and five days later all the mosquitoes were infected with a different strain of E. coli.

Identification of a conserved var gene in different Plasmodium falciparum strains

June 2, 2020 - 09:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sandra Dimonte, Ellen I. Bruske, Corinna Enderes, Thomas D. Otto, Louise Turner, Peter Kremsner and Matthias Frank
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:194, 29 May 2020

The multicopy var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum is of crucial importance for pathogenesis and antigenic variation. So far only var2csa, the var gene responsible for placental malaria, was found to be highly conserved among all P. falciparum strains. Here, a new conserved 3D7 var gene (PF3D7_0617400) is identified in several field isolates.

ImergardTMWP: A Non-Chemical Alternative for an Indoor Residual Spray, Effective against Pyrethroid-Resistant Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Africa

May 27, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Deguenon JM, Azondekon R, Roe RM, et al.
Reference: 
Insects. 2020 May 23; 11(5):E322

Malaria is the deadliest mosquito-borne disease and kills predominantly people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The now widespread mosquito resistance to pyrethroids, with rapidly growing resistance to other insecticide classes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), may overturn the successes gained in mosquito control in recent years. It is of utmost importance to search for new, inexpensive, and safe alternatives, with new modes of action, that might improve the efficacy of current insecticides.

NOT Open Access | Baseline and multinormal distribution of ex vivo susceptibilities of Plasmodium falciparum to methylene blue in Africa, 2013-18

May 19, 2020 - 14:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gendrot M, Madamet M, Mosnier J, Fonta I, Amalvict R, Benoit N, Briolant S, Pradines B
Reference: 
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 May 14:dkaa174

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to most antimalarial compounds has emerged in Southeast Asia and spread to Africa. In this context, the development of new antimalarial drugs is urgent.

Shifting transmission risk for malaria in Africa with climate change: a framework for planning and intervention

May 4, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sadie J. Ryan, Catherine A. Lippi and Fernanda Zermoglio
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:170, 1 May 2020

Malaria continues to be a disease of massive burden in Africa, and the public health resources targeted at surveillance, prevention, control, and intervention comprise large outlays of expense. Malaria transmission is largely constrained by the suitability of the climate for Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium parasite development. Thus, as climate changes, shifts in geographic locations suitable for transmission, and differing lengths of seasons of suitability will occur, which will require changes in the types and amounts of resources.

Central Nervous System Virus Infection in African Children with Cerebral Malaria

April 29, 2020 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Postels DG, Osei-Tutu L, Wilson MR, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

We aimed to identify the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) viral coinfection to illness in African children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria (CM). We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 272 children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive CM and selected CSF from 111 of these children (38 retinopathy positive, 71 retinopathy negative, 2 retinopathy unknown) for analysis by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

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