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Africa

Extensive new Anopheles cryptic species involved in human malaria transmission in western Kenya

October 1, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Wang X, Kibret S, Zhou G, Atieli H, Lee MC, Afrane YA, Githeko AK, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 30;10(1):16139

A thorough understanding of malaria vector species composition and their bionomic characteristics is crucial to devise effective and efficient vector control interventions to reduce malaria transmission. It has been well documented in Africa that malaria interventions in the past decade have resulted in major changes in species composition from endophilic Anopheles gambiae to exophilic An. arabiensis.

Not Open Access | Immune responses to malaria pre-erythrocytic stages: implications for vaccine development

September 30, 2020 - 11:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Jones-Warner W, Hafalla JCR
Reference: 
Parasite Immunol. 2020 Sep 27

Radiation-attenuated sporozoites induce sterilising immunity and remain the "gold-standard" for malaria vaccine development. Despite practical challenges in translating these whole sporozoites vaccines to large-scale intervention programmes, they have provided an excellent platform to dissect the immune responses to malaria pre-erythrocytic (PE) stages, comprising both sporozoites and exoerythrocytic forms (EEF).

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria intervention coverage, morbidity, and mortality in Africa: a geospatial modelling analysis

September 29, 2020 - 13:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Weiss DJ, Bertozzi-Villa A, Peter W Gething, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 21:S1473-3099(20)30700-3

Substantial progress has been made in reducing the burden of malaria in Africa since 2000, but those gains could be jeopardised if the COVID-19 pandemic affects the availability of key malaria control interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate plausible effects on malaria incidence and mortality under different levels of disruption to malaria control.

Influence of GST- and P450-based metabolic resistance to pyrethroids on blood feeding in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus

September 22, 2020 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nouage L, Elanga-Ndille E, Binyang A, Tchouakui M, Atsatse T, Ndo C, Kekeunou S, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 18;15(9):e0230984

Insecticide resistance genes are often associated with pleiotropic effects on various mosquito life-history traits. However, very little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on blood feeding process in mosquitoes. Here, using two recently detected DNA-based metabolic markers in the major malaria vector, An. funestus, we investigated how metabolic resistance genes could affect the blood meal intake.

A new malaria vector in Africa: Predicting the expansion range of Anopheles stephensi and identifying the urban populations at risk

September 16, 2020 - 13:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinka ME, Pironon S, Massey NC, Longbottom J, Hemingway J, Moyes CL, Willis KJ
Reference: 
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 14:202003976.

In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region.

Climate change could shift disease burden from malaria to arboviruses in Africa

September 15, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mordecai EA, Ryan SJ, Caldwell JM, Shah MM, LaBeaud AD
Reference: 
Lancet Planet Health. 2020 Sep;4(9):e416-e423

Malaria is a long-standing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue and chikungunya cause an under-recognised burden of disease. Many human and environmental drivers affect the dynamics of vector-borne diseases.

Antimalarial drugs inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2: an in vitro evaluation

September 15, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gendrot M, Andreani J, Pradines B, et al.
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 8:101873

In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. African countries see slower dynamic of COVID-19 cases and deaths. One of the assumptions that may explain this later emergence in Africa, and more particularly in malaria endemic areas, would be the use of antimalarial drugs.

Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of malaria risk in Rwanda

September 15, 2020 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Semakula M, Niragire FI, Faes C
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 10;15(9):e0238504

Every year, 435,000 people worldwide die from Malaria, mainly in Africa and Asia. However, malaria is a curable and preventable disease. Most countries are developing malaria elimination plans to meet sustainable development goal three, target 3.3, which includes ending the epidemic of malaria by 2030. Rwanda, through the malaria strategic plan 2012-2018 set a target to reduce malaria incidence by 42% from 2012 to 2018.

Emergence of behavioural avoidance strategies of malaria vectors in areas of high LLIN coverage in Tanzania

September 12, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kreppel KS, Viana M, Main BJ, Johnson PCD, Govella NJ, Lee Y, Maliti D, Meza FC, Lanzaro GC, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 3;10(1):14527

Despite significant reductions in malaria transmission across Africa since 2000, progress is stalling. This has been attributed to the development of insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptations in malaria vectors. Whilst insecticide resistance has been widely investigated, there is poorer understanding of the emergence, dynamics and impact of mosquito behavioural adaptations.

NOT Open Access | Ape Origins of Human Malaria

September 10, 2020 - 14:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharp PM, Plenderleith LJ, Hahn BH
Reference: 
Annu Rev Microbiol. 2020 Sep 8;74:39-63

African apes harbor at least twelve Plasmodium species, some of which have been a source of human infection. It is now well established that Plasmodium falciparum emerged following the transmission of a gorilla parasite, perhaps within the last 10,000 years, while Plasmodium vivax emerged earlier from a parasite lineage that infected humans and apes in Africa before the Duffy-negative mutation eliminated the parasite from humans there.

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