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Routine data for malaria morbidity estimation in Africa: challenges and prospects

June 3, 2020 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Alegana VA, Okiro EA, Snow RW
BMC Med. 2020 Jun 3; 18(1):121

The burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa remains challenging to measure relying on epidemiological modelling to evaluate the impact of investments and providing an in-depth analysis of progress and trends in malaria response globally.

Adult Mosquitoes Infected with Bacteria Early in Life Have Stronger Antimicrobial Responses and More Hemocytes after Reinfection Later in Life

June 2, 2020 - 13:55 -- Open Access
Powers JC, Turangan R, Joosse BA, Hillyer JF
Insects. 2020 May 28; 11(6):E331

The immunological strategies employed by insects to overcome infection vary with the type of infection and may change with experience. We investigated how a bacterial infection in the hemocoel of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, prepares the immune system to face a subsequent bacterial infection. For this, adult female mosquitoes were separated into three groups-unmanipulated, injured, or infected with Escherichia coli-and five days later all the mosquitoes were infected with a different strain of E. coli.

Identification of a conserved var gene in different Plasmodium falciparum strains

June 2, 2020 - 09:29 -- Open Access
Sandra Dimonte, Ellen I. Bruske, Corinna Enderes, Thomas D. Otto, Louise Turner, Peter Kremsner and Matthias Frank
Malaria Journal 2020 19:194, 29 May 2020

The multicopy var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum is of crucial importance for pathogenesis and antigenic variation. So far only var2csa, the var gene responsible for placental malaria, was found to be highly conserved among all P. falciparum strains. Here, a new conserved 3D7 var gene (PF3D7_0617400) is identified in several field isolates.

ImergardTMWP: A Non-Chemical Alternative for an Indoor Residual Spray, Effective against Pyrethroid-Resistant Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Africa

May 27, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Deguenon JM, Azondekon R, Roe RM, et al.
Insects. 2020 May 23; 11(5):E322

Malaria is the deadliest mosquito-borne disease and kills predominantly people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The now widespread mosquito resistance to pyrethroids, with rapidly growing resistance to other insecticide classes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), may overturn the successes gained in mosquito control in recent years. It is of utmost importance to search for new, inexpensive, and safe alternatives, with new modes of action, that might improve the efficacy of current insecticides.

NOT Open Access | Baseline and multinormal distribution of ex vivo susceptibilities of Plasmodium falciparum to methylene blue in Africa, 2013-18

May 19, 2020 - 14:32 -- NOT Open Access
Gendrot M, Madamet M, Mosnier J, Fonta I, Amalvict R, Benoit N, Briolant S, Pradines B
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 May 14:dkaa174

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to most antimalarial compounds has emerged in Southeast Asia and spread to Africa. In this context, the development of new antimalarial drugs is urgent.

Shifting transmission risk for malaria in Africa with climate change: a framework for planning and intervention

May 4, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Sadie J. Ryan, Catherine A. Lippi and Fernanda Zermoglio
Malaria Journal 2020 19:170, 1 May 2020

Malaria continues to be a disease of massive burden in Africa, and the public health resources targeted at surveillance, prevention, control, and intervention comprise large outlays of expense. Malaria transmission is largely constrained by the suitability of the climate for Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium parasite development. Thus, as climate changes, shifts in geographic locations suitable for transmission, and differing lengths of seasons of suitability will occur, which will require changes in the types and amounts of resources.

Central Nervous System Virus Infection in African Children with Cerebral Malaria

April 29, 2020 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Postels DG, Osei-Tutu L, Wilson MR, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

We aimed to identify the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) viral coinfection to illness in African children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria (CM). We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 272 children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive CM and selected CSF from 111 of these children (38 retinopathy positive, 71 retinopathy negative, 2 retinopathy unknown) for analysis by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-Label Use in Healthcare Settings

April 27, 2020 - 12:50 -- Open Access
Abena PM, Decloedt EH, Nachega JB, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 22

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pandemic has spread to Africa, where nearly all countries have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although there are ongoing clinical trials of repurposed and investigational antiviral and immune-based therapies, there are as yet no scientifically proven, clinically effective pharmacological treatments for COVID-19.

Cardiovascular safety and population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria - a pooled multicentre analysis

April 23, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Wattanakul T, Ogutu B, Tarning J, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Apr 20. pii: AAC.01848-19

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine has shown excellent efficacy and tolerability in malaria treatment. However, concerns have been raised of potentially harmful cardiotoxic effects associated with piperaquine. The population pharmacokinetics and cardiac effects of piperaquine were evaluated in 1,000 patients, mostly children enrolled in a multicentre trial from 10 sites in Africa.

NOT Open Access | Non-falciparum Malaria in Africa and Learning From Plasmodium vivax in Asia

April 20, 2020 - 08:49 -- NOT Open Access
Lin JT, Parr JB, Ngasala B
Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 9, 1 May 2020, Pages 2018–2019

No abstract available


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