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Africa

Radiation with reticulation marks the origin of a major malaria vector

December 16, 2020 - 12:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Small ST, Labbé F, Lobo NF, Koekemoer LL, Sikaala CH, Neafsey DE, Hahn MW, Fontaine MC, Besansky NJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Dec 15;117(50):31583-31590

Advances in genomics have led to an appreciation that introgression is common, but its evolutionary consequences are poorly understood. In recent species radiations the sharing of genetic variation across porous species boundaries can facilitate adaptation to new environments and generate novel phenotypes, which may contribute to further diversification. Most Anopheles mosquito species that are of major importance as human malaria vectors have evolved within recent and rapid radiations of largely nonvector species.

NOT Open Access | Artemisinin resistant surveillance in African Plasmodium falciparum isolates from imported malaria cases to Italy

December 10, 2020 - 10:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
L'Episcopia M, Bartoli TA, Corpolongo A, Mariano A, D'Abramo A, Vulcano A, Paglia MG, Perrotti E, Menegon M, Nicastri E, Severini C
Reference: 
J Travel Med. 2020 Dec 9:taaa231

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a significant public health problem in returning travelers, and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) remains the first choice for treatment. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum kelch 13 (Pfk13) gene have been associated with artemisinin (ART) resistance. Moreover, the increase in the P. falciparum plasmepsin 2 (Pfpm2) gene copy number was shown to be linked with reduced susceptibility of P. falciparum to piperaquine (PPQ), a partner drug in an ACT regimen. Active molecular surveillance for imported drug-resistant malaria parasites is a pivotal activity to provide adequate chemoprophylaxis and treatment guidelines.

Concomitant Bacteremia in Adults With Severe Falciparum Malaria

December 8, 2020 - 11:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Phu NH, Day NPJ, Tuan PQ, Mai NTH, Chau TTH, Van Chuong L, Vinh H, Loc PP, Sinh DX, Hoa NTT, Waller DJ, Wain J, Jeyapant A, Watson JA, Farrar JJ, Hien TT, Parry CM, White NJ
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 3;71(9):e465-e470

Approximately 6% of children hospitalized with severe falciparum malaria in Africa are also bacteremic. It is therefore recommended that all children with severe malaria should receive broad-spectrum antibiotics in addition to parenteral artesunate. Empirical antibiotics are not recommended currently for adults with severe malaria.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and susceptibility to childhood diseases in Kilifi, Kenya

December 8, 2020 - 10:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Uyoga S, Macharia AW, Ndila CM, Nyutu G, Shebe M, Awuondo KO, Mturi N, Peshu N, Tsofa B, Scott JAG, Maitland K, Williams TN
Reference: 
Blood Adv. 2020 Dec 8;4(23):5942-5950

Few previous studies have reported the effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficiency on child health in Africa. We conducted a case-control study in which cases (n = 6829) were children admitted, for any reason, to Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, while controls (n = 10 179) were recruited from the surrounding community. Cases were subclassified based on their clinical and laboratory findings at admission.

Effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention at scale in west and central Africa: an observational study

December 8, 2020 - 10:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
ACCESS-SMC Partnership
Reference: 
Lancet. 2020 Dec 5;396(10265):1829-1840

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) aims to prevent malaria in children during the high malaria transmission season. The Achieving Catalytic Expansion of SMC in the Sahel (ACCESS-SMC) project sought to remove barriers to the scale-up of SMC in seven countries in 2015 and 2016. We evaluated the project, including coverage, effectiveness of the intervention, safety, feasibility, drug resistance, and cost-effectiveness.

Malaria Chemoprevention in the Postdischarge Management of Severe Anemia

December 3, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kwambai TK, Dhabangi A, Ter Kuile FO, et al.
Reference: 
N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2242-2254

Children who have been hospitalized with severe anemia in areas of Africa in which malaria is endemic have a high risk of readmission and death within 6 months after discharge. No prevention strategy specifically addresses this period.

The association of malaria infection and gestational hypertension in Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis

December 2, 2020 - 08:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mruma HA, McQuillan R, Norrie J
Reference: 
J Glob Health. 2020 Dec;10(2):020417

The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) contribute 14% to global maternal mortality. HDP encompasses several subcategories, including gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia. These two conditions are both characterised by a rise in blood pressure, with an onset from 20 weeks of gestation. They also share some common risk factors. The current definition of pre-eclampsia includes raised blood pressure in the absence of proteinuria, thus presenting the two conditions as a spectrum. In this article, we refer to both conditions as gestational hypertension, which is our outcome of interest. The aetiology of GH is not yet clearly understood. Observational studies have suggested that malaria may be associated with GH. However, the evidence from these small studies has been inconclusive. Having a better understanding of the association between malaria and GH may help inform prevention strategies to reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.

Molecular surveillance of anti-malarial resistance Pfdhfr and Pfdhps polymorphisms in African and Southeast Asia Plasmodium falciparum imported parasites to Wuhan, China

November 28, 2020 - 16:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tingting Jiang, Weijia Cheng, Yi Yao, Huabing Tan, Kai Wu and Jian Li
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:434, 25 November 2020

Anti-malarial drug resistance is a severe challenge for eventual control and global elimination of malaria. Resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) increases as mutations accumulate in the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. This study aimed to assess the polymorphisms and prevalence of mutation in these genes in the Plasmodium falciparum infecting migrant workers returning to Wuhan, China.

NOT Open Access | Association of Malnutrition with Subsequent Malaria Parasitemia among Children Younger than Three years in Kenya: A Secondary Data Analysis of the Asembo Bay Cohort Study

November 18, 2020 - 12:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Donovan CV, McElroy P, Adair L, Pence BW, Oloo AJ, Lal A, Bloland P, Nahlen B, Juliano JJ, Meshnick S
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 16

Malaria and malnutrition remain primary causes of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years in Africa. Studies investigating the association between malnutrition and subsequent malaria outcomes are inconsistent. We studied the effects of malnutrition on incidence and prevalence of malaria parasitemia in data from a cohort studied in the 1990s.

Addressing budget reduction and reallocation on health-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria-endemic countries

November 17, 2020 - 13:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ajib Diptyanusa and Karen Nelwin Zablon
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:411, 16 November 2020

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system.

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