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Africa

Influence of GST- and P450-based metabolic resistance to pyrethroids on blood feeding in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus

September 22, 2020 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nouage L, Elanga-Ndille E, Binyang A, Tchouakui M, Atsatse T, Ndo C, Kekeunou S, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 18;15(9):e0230984

Insecticide resistance genes are often associated with pleiotropic effects on various mosquito life-history traits. However, very little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on blood feeding process in mosquitoes. Here, using two recently detected DNA-based metabolic markers in the major malaria vector, An. funestus, we investigated how metabolic resistance genes could affect the blood meal intake.

A new malaria vector in Africa: Predicting the expansion range of Anopheles stephensi and identifying the urban populations at risk

September 16, 2020 - 13:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinka ME, Pironon S, Massey NC, Longbottom J, Hemingway J, Moyes CL, Willis KJ
Reference: 
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 14:202003976.

In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region.

Climate change could shift disease burden from malaria to arboviruses in Africa

September 15, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mordecai EA, Ryan SJ, Caldwell JM, Shah MM, LaBeaud AD
Reference: 
Lancet Planet Health. 2020 Sep;4(9):e416-e423

Malaria is a long-standing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue and chikungunya cause an under-recognised burden of disease. Many human and environmental drivers affect the dynamics of vector-borne diseases.

Antimalarial drugs inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2: an in vitro evaluation

September 15, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gendrot M, Andreani J, Pradines B, et al.
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 8:101873

In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. African countries see slower dynamic of COVID-19 cases and deaths. One of the assumptions that may explain this later emergence in Africa, and more particularly in malaria endemic areas, would be the use of antimalarial drugs.

Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of malaria risk in Rwanda

September 15, 2020 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Semakula M, Niragire FI, Faes C
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 10;15(9):e0238504

Every year, 435,000 people worldwide die from Malaria, mainly in Africa and Asia. However, malaria is a curable and preventable disease. Most countries are developing malaria elimination plans to meet sustainable development goal three, target 3.3, which includes ending the epidemic of malaria by 2030. Rwanda, through the malaria strategic plan 2012-2018 set a target to reduce malaria incidence by 42% from 2012 to 2018.

Emergence of behavioural avoidance strategies of malaria vectors in areas of high LLIN coverage in Tanzania

September 12, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kreppel KS, Viana M, Main BJ, Johnson PCD, Govella NJ, Lee Y, Maliti D, Meza FC, Lanzaro GC, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 3;10(1):14527

Despite significant reductions in malaria transmission across Africa since 2000, progress is stalling. This has been attributed to the development of insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptations in malaria vectors. Whilst insecticide resistance has been widely investigated, there is poorer understanding of the emergence, dynamics and impact of mosquito behavioural adaptations.

NOT Open Access | Ape Origins of Human Malaria

September 10, 2020 - 14:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharp PM, Plenderleith LJ, Hahn BH
Reference: 
Annu Rev Microbiol. 2020 Sep 8;74:39-63

African apes harbor at least twelve Plasmodium species, some of which have been a source of human infection. It is now well established that Plasmodium falciparum emerged following the transmission of a gorilla parasite, perhaps within the last 10,000 years, while Plasmodium vivax emerged earlier from a parasite lineage that infected humans and apes in Africa before the Duffy-negative mutation eliminated the parasite from humans there.

Molecular epidemiological surveillance of Africa and Asia imported malaria in Wuhan, Central China: comparison of diagnostic tools during 2011–2018

September 5, 2020 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yiting Xie, Kai Wu, Weijia Cheng, Tingting Jiang, Yi Yao, Mingxing Xu, Yan Yang, Huabing Tan and Jian Li
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:321, 3 September 2020

Malaria remains a serious public health problem globally. As the elimination of indigenous malaria continues in China, imported malaria has gradually become a major health hazard. Well-timed and accurate diagnoses could support the timely implementation of therapeutic schedules, reveal the prevalence of imported malaria and avoid transmission of the disease.

Misdiagnosis of imported falciparum malaria from African areas due to an increased prevalence of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 gene deletion: The Djibouti case

September 2, 2020 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Iriart X, Menard S, Chauvin P, Mohamed HS, Charpentier E, Mohamed MA, Berry A, Aboubaker MH
Reference: 
Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Sep 1:1-9

A case of imported falciparum malaria acquired in Djibouti was diagnosed in 2019 in the Toulouse University Hospital (France) by microscopy and a positive P. falciparum specific real-time PCR (qPCR).

Incorporating hydrology into climate suitability models changes projections of malaria transmission in Africa

September 1, 2020 - 10:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Smith MW, Willis T, Alfieri L, James WHM, Trigg MA, Yamazaki D, Hardy AJ, Bisselink B, De Roo A, Macklin MG, Thomas CJ
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 28;11(1):4353

Continental-scale models of malaria climate suitability typically couple well-established temperature-response models with basic estimates of vector habitat availability using rainfall as a proxy. Here we show that across continental Africa, the estimated geographic range of climatic suitability for malaria transmission is more sensitive to the precipitation threshold than the thermal response curve applied.

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