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World Health Organization

A new malaria vector in Africa: Predicting the expansion range of Anopheles stephensi and identifying the urban populations at risk

September 16, 2020 - 13:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinka ME, Pironon S, Massey NC, Longbottom J, Hemingway J, Moyes CL, Willis KJ
Reference: 
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 14:202003976.

In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region.

Individual, community and region level predictors of insecticide-treated net use among women in Uganda: a multilevel analysis

September 16, 2020 - 12:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Yusuf Olushola Kareem and Sanni Yaya
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:337, 16 September 2020

Use of insecticide-treated net (ITN) has been identified by the World Health Organization as an effective approach for malaria prevention. The government of Uganda has instituted measures to enhance ITN supply over the past decade, however, the country ranks third towards the global malaria burden. As a result, this study investigated how individual, community and region level factors affect ITN use among women of reproductive age in Uganda.

NOT Open Access | Malaria fighters' latest chemical weapon may not last long

September 8, 2020 - 11:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Makoni M
Reference: 
Science. 2020 Sep 4;369(6508):1153

Two years ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) gave the green light for clothianidin, long used to kill crop pests, to be added to the current mainstays of indoor mosquito control, which are losing their effectiveness as the insects develop resistance.

Impact of Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine in COVID-19 Therapy: Two Sides of the Coin

September 8, 2020 - 11:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fatima U, Rizvi SSA, Fatima S, Hassan MI
Reference: 
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2020 Sep 1

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has recently emerged as a global health threat. To address this health emergency, various therapeutic approaches are currently under investigation. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as COVID-19 therapies, and thus World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned that "Current data shows that this drug does not reduce deaths among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, nor help people with mild or moderate disease."

NOT Open Access | A Cluster of Cryptic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in African Migrants in Southern Italy, October 2017

August 25, 2020 - 15:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Brindicci G, Santoro CR, Loconsole D, Martinelli D, Prato R, Lonero G, Loperfido P, Buccoliero GB, Chironna M
Reference: 
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 Aug 20

Italy was declared malaria free by the World Health Organization in 1970. Despite this, nonimport malaria cases are on the increase in Italy and throughout the Mediterranean area. In Italy, in the period between 2011 and 2015, seven cases of locally acquired malaria have been reported, including one introduced case of Plasmodium vivax; moreover, the last certain case of introduced malaria (by P. vivax) has been reported in Tuscany in 1997. No case of introduced malaria from Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Italy since 1970.

The lack of K13-propeller mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

August 25, 2020 - 07:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yobi DM, Kayiba NK, Mvumbi DM, Boreux R, Bontems S, Kabututu PZ, De Mol P, Speybroeck N, Mvumbi GL, Hayette MP
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Aug 21;15(8):e0237791

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria since 2005 in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and a regular surveillance of the ACT efficacy is required to ensure the treatment effectiveness. Mutations in the propeller domain of the pfk13 gene were identified as molecular markers of artemisinin resistance (ART-R).

NOT Open Access | Pandemic's fallout on malaria control appears limited so far

August 24, 2020 - 15:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Roberts L
Reference: 
Science. 2020 Aug 21;369(6506):892

Back in March when COVID-19 hit, some scientists worried malaria cases and deaths might soar. African countries went on lockdown; worried about mass gatherings, they suspended campaigns to distribute mosquito-fighting bed nets. Fears abounded that with clinics overwhelmed by COVID-19, patients would be unable to get treatment for malaria.

New Mosquitocide Derived From Volcanic Rock

August 22, 2020 - 09:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Deguenon JM, Riegel C, Cloherty-Duvernay ER, Chen K, Stewart DA, Wang B, Gittins D, Tihomirov L, Apperson CS, McCord MG, Roe RM
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Aug 18:tjaa141

Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and the Zika and West Nile Viruses are major vector-borne diseases of humans transmitted by mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization, over 80% of the world's population is at risk of contacting these diseases. Insecticides are critical for mosquito control and disease prevention, and insect insecticide resistance is on the increase; new alternatives with potentially different modes of action from current chemistry are needed.

A multiphase program for malaria elimination in southern Mozambique (the Magude project): A before-after study

August 18, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Galatas B, Saúte F, Martí-Soler H, Aide P, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 14;17(8):e1003227

Malaria eradication remains the long-term vision of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, whether malaria elimination is feasible in areas of stable transmission in sub-Saharan Africa with currently available tools remains a subject of debate. This study aimed to evaluate a multiphased malaria elimination project to interrupt Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in a rural district of southern Mozambique.

Assessment of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance among children participating in a therapeutic efficacy study in western Kenya

August 17, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Winnie Chebore, Zhiyong Zhou, Simon Kariuki, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:291, 14 August 2020

Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a major threat to global malaria control efforts. In Africa, Plasmodium falciparum remains susceptible to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), but the emergence of resistant parasites in multiple countries in Southeast Asia and concerns over emergence and/or spread of resistant parasites in Africa warrants continuous monitoring. The World Health Organization recommends that surveillance for molecular markers of resistance be included within therapeutic efficacy studies (TES). The current study assessed molecular markers associated with resistance to Artemether−lumefantrine (AL) and Dihydroartemisinin−piperaquine (DP) from samples collected from children aged 6–59 months enrolled in a TES conducted in Siaya County, western Kenya from 2016 to 2017.

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