Mitigating the threat of insecticide resistance in African malaria vector populations requires comprehensive information about where resistance occurs, to what degree, and how this has changed over time. Estimating these trends is complicated by the sparse, heterogeneous distribution of observations of resistance phenotypes in field populations.
Malaria is still an important challenge for global public health because of its extensive mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium ovale is mainly distributed in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. it includes two distinct ovale malaria species, which are P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is an asexual blood-stage protein which is essential for Plasmodium. Thus far, no study on gene polymorphism and immunogenicity of P. ovale AMA-1 (PoAMA-1) has been conducted. Amplified poama1 gene products from 14 P ovale curtisi samples and 12 P ovale wallikeri samples imported from Africa to Jiangsu Province, China were sequenced and their polymorphisms were analyzed.
Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the deadliest human malaria. New molecules are needed that can specifically bind to erythrocytes that are infected with P. falciparum for diagnostic purposes, to disrupt host-parasite interactions, or to deliver chemotherapeutics. Aptamer technology has the potential to revolutionize biological diagnostics and therapeutics; however, broad adoption is hindered by the high failure rate of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Here we performed parallel SELEX experiments to compare the impact of two different methods for single-strand recovery on the efficiency of aptamer enrichment.
Anaemia is a major public health concern especially in African children living in malaria-endemic regions. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is elevated during malaria infection and is thought to influence erythropoiesis and iron status. Genetic variants in the IFN-γ gene (IFNG) are associated with increased IFN-γ production. We investigated putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of IFNG in relation to nutritional iron status and anaemia in Gambian children over a malaria season.
Deaths and transmission from malaria have declined significantly in the past decade, although the progress has somewhat stalled in recent years. Accurate and timely diagnosis is essential to providing adequate treatment to malaria cases. Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is widely used especially in Africa, where P. Falciparum accounts for 98%of estimated malaria cases. Despite its importance, reports of parasites lackingpfhrp2gene emerging across the globe are threatening the importance of this malaria diagnostic tool.
The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) is known to be involved in chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance, and more particularly the mutations on the loci 72 to 76 localized within the second exon. Additionally, new mutations (T93S, H97Y, C101F, F145I, M343L, C350R and G353V) were recently shown to be associated with in vitro reduced susceptibility to piperaquine in Asian or South American P. falciparum strains. However, very few data are available on the prevalence of these mutations and their effect on parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs, and more particularly piperaquine in Africa.
Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens to reverse recent gains in malaria control. Deciphering patterns of gene flow and resistance evolution in malaria vectors is crucial to improve control strategies and preventing malaria resurgence. A genome-wide survey of Anopheles funestus genetic diversity Africa-wide revealed evidences of a major division between southern Africa and elsewhere, associated with different population histories.
Ninety percent of the global annual malaria mortality cases emanate from the African region. About 80–90% of malaria transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur indoors during the night. In Zimbabwe, 79% of the population are at risk of contracting the disease. Although the country has made significant progress towards malaria elimination, isolated seasonal outbreaks persistently resurface. In 2017, Beitbridge District was experiencing a second malaria outbreak within 12 months prompting the need for investigating the outbreak.
The burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa remains challenging to measure relying on epidemiological modelling to evaluate the impact of investments and providing an in-depth analysis of progress and trends in malaria response globally.
The immunological strategies employed by insects to overcome infection vary with the type of infection and may change with experience. We investigated how a bacterial infection in the hemocoel of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, prepares the immune system to face a subsequent bacterial infection. For this, adult female mosquitoes were separated into three groups-unmanipulated, injured, or infected with Escherichia coli-and five days later all the mosquitoes were infected with a different strain of E. coli.