The western area of the province of Almeria, sited in southern Spain, has one of the highest immigrant population rates in Spain, mainly dedicated to agricultural work. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of cases of imported malaria associated with migrants from countries belonging to sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of our study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and analytical characteristics of malaria patients treated in a specialized tropical unit, paying special attention to the differences between VFR and non-VFR migrants and also to the peculiarities of microscopic malaria cases compared to submicroscopic ones.
The artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) used to treat Plasmodium falciparum in Africa are threatened by the emergence of parasites in Asia carrying variants of the Kelch 13 (K13) locus with delayed clearance in response to ACTs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in other molecular markers, such as ap2mu and ubp1, were associated with artemisinin resistance in rodent malaria and clinical failure in African malaria patients. Here, we characterized the polymorphisms in pfmdr1, pfcrt, pfK13, pfubp1 and pfap2mu among African isolates reported in Shandong and Guangxi provinces in China.
Controlled human infections provide opportunities to study the interaction between the immune system and malaria parasites, which is essential for vaccine development. Here, we compared immune signatures of malaria-naive Europeans and of Africans with lifelong malaria exposure using mass cytometry, RNA sequencing and data integration, before and 5 and 11 days after venous inoculation with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites.
The spread of Plasmodium falciparum isolates carrying mutations in the kelch13 (Pfkelch13) gene associated with artemisinin resistance (PfART-R) in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination efforts. Emergence of PfART-R in Africa would result in a major public health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the frequency and spatial distribution of Pfkelch13 mutants in Africa, including mutants linked to PfART-R in southeast Asia. Seven databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, African Journal Online, African Index Medicus, Bioline, and Web of Science) for relevant articles about polymorphisms of the Pfkelch13 gene in Africa before January, 2019.
Despite the major advances in the fight against this parasitic disease, malaria remains a major cause of concerns in 2020. This infection, mainly due to Plasmodium falciparum, causes every year more than 200 million of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths in developing regions, mostly in Africa. The last statistics show an increase of cases for the third consecutive year, from 211 million in 2015, it has reached 229 million in 2019. This trend could be partially explained by the appearance of resistances to all the used antimalarials, even to artemisinin. Thus, the design of new anti-Plasmodium compounds is an urgent need. For thousands of years, nature has offered to humans the medicines to cure their diseases or the inspiration for development of new active principles. It seems then logical to explore the natural sources to find new molecules to treat this parasitosis.
The malaria vector Anopheles funestus is increasingly recognized as a dominant vector of residual transmission in many African settings. Efforts to better understand its biology and control are significantly impeded by the difficulties of colonizing it under laboratory conditions. To identify key bottlenecks in colonization, this study compared the development and fitness characteristics of wild An. funestus from Tanzania (FUTAZ) and their F1 offspring during colonization attempts. The demography and reproductive success of wild FUTAZ offspring were compared to that of individuals from one of the only An. funestus strains that has been successfully colonized (FUMOZ, from Mozambique) under similar laboratory conditions.
Although malaria is preventable and curable, 1 child dies of this disease every 2 minutes in Africa. Home-based management of malaria reduces the progression of severe malaria by more than 50%. Scalable, efficacious, and cost-effective strategies are needed to empower the capacities of home caregivers of children younger than 5 years of age in health education, diagnosis, and treatment of malaria at home.
Malaria, Chagas Disease and Human African Trypanosomiasis are vector-borne protozoan illnesses, frequently associated with neurological manifestations. Intriguing but ignored, limited mainly to resource-limited, tropical settings, these disorders are now coming to light because of globalisation and improved diagnosis and treatment. Enhanced understanding of these illnesses has prompted this review.
Most deaths from severe falciparum malaria occur within 24 hours of presentation to hospital. Intravenous (i.v.) artesunate is the first-line treatment for severe falciparum malaria, but its efficacy may be compromised by delayed parasitological responses. In patients with severe malaria the life-saving benefit of the artemisinin derivatives is their ability to clear circulating parasites rapidly, before they can sequester and obstruct the microcirculation.
Lack of tools for detailed, real-time observation of mosquito behavior with high spatio-temporal resolution limits progress towards improved malaria vector control. We deployed a high-resolution entomological lidar to monitor a half-kilometer static transect positioned over rice fields outside a Tanzanian village. A quarter of a million in situ insect observations were classified, and several insect taxa were identified based on their modulation signatures.