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Africa

NOT Open Access | Impairment of invasion and maturation and decreased selectivity of Plasmodium falciparum in G6PD Viangchan and Mahidol variants

October 2, 2021 - 13:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Palasuwan D, Palasuwan A, Boonpeng K, Ketprasit N, Imwong M, Kulkeaw K
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 24:jiab484

Protection against Plasmodium falciparum is observed in a population deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), particularly in African and Mediterranean regions. However, such protection remains unknown among G6PD-deficient individuals in Southeast Asia. Here, we assessed the invasion and maturation of P. falciparum K1 in a culture of erythrocytes isolated from Thai subjects carrying Viangchan (871G>A) and Mahidol (487G>A).

Plasmodium vivax epidemiology in Ethiopia 2000-2020: A systematic review and meta-analysis

September 25, 2021 - 12:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ketema T, Bacha K, Getahun K, Portillo HAD, Bassat Q
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 15;15(9):e0009781

Ethiopia is one of the scarce rare African countries where Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum co-exist. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of P. vivax in the country although a clear understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite is essential for informed decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, is aimed to synthesize the available evidences on the distribution of P. vivax infection by different locations/regions, study years, eco-epidemiological zones, and study settings in Ethiopia.

Evidence of Artemisinin-Resistant Malaria in Africa

September 23, 2021 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Balikagala B, Fukuda N, Mita T, et al.
Reference: 
N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1163-1171

In the six Southeast Asian countries that make up the Greater Mekong Subregion, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance to derivatives of artemisinin, the main component of first-line treatments for malaria. Clinical resistance to artemisinin monotherapy in other global regions, including Africa, would be problematic.

Determinants of brain swelling in pediatric and adult cerebral malaria

September 23, 2021 - 10:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sahu PK, Duffy FJ, Wassmer SC, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 22;6(18):e145823

Cerebral malaria (CM) affects children and adults, but brain swelling is more severe in children. To investigate features associated with brain swelling in malaria, we performed blood profiling and brain MRI in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients with CM in Rourkela, India, and compared them with an African pediatric CM cohort in Malawi. We determined that higher plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) levels and elevated var transcripts that encode for binding to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were linked to CM at both sites.

A systematic review assessing the potential for release of vector species from competition following insecticide-based population suppression of Anopheles species in Africa

September 14, 2021 - 09:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Qureshi A, Connolly JB
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 8;14(1):462

While insecticide-based vector control can effectively target vector species in areas of high malaria endemicity, such as Anopheles gambiae in Africa, residual disease transmission can occur. Understanding the potential role of competitive displacement between vector species could inform both current insecticide-based vector control programmes and the development of future complementary interventions.

Improving the quality of malaria diagnosis in southern Africa through the development of a regional malaria slide bank

September 8, 2021 - 17:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bhavani Moodley, Anderson Chinorumba, Cheryl Hamman, Avhatakali Matamba, Chadwick H. Sikaala, Immo Kleinschmidt and John Frean
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:365, 8 September 2021

A malaria slide bank (MSB) is a useful asset for any malaria microscopy testing laboratory to have access to. However, it is not feasible for every country to have its own MSB. If countries are able to pool their resources, a regional MSB is a viable solution. This paper describes the methodology, costing and lessons learnt of establishing and maintaining an MSB over a 3-year period, for a Southern Africa Development Community region.

Are Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies For Malaria Beginning To Fail in Africa

September 8, 2021 - 17:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosenthal PJ
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210797

Despite advances in many countries, notably the recent declaration that China is now malaria free, malaria remains entrenched in Africa, where over 90% of malaria morbidity and mortality is seen. 1. In the past, Africa suffered greatly from the effects for resistance to chloroquine, the mainstay of malaria treatment of decades, with increasing mortality from Plasmodium falciparum over the last decades of the 20th century.

NOT Open Access | An Adaptive Intervention Trial Design for Finding the Optimal Integrated Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination in Africa: A Model Simulation Study

September 8, 2021 - 17:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou G, Lee MC, Wang X, Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Yan G
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd200254

There are a number of available and emerging malaria intervention tools that require innovative trial designs to find the optimal combinations at given epidemiologic settings. We simulated intervention strategies based on adaptive interventions, which included long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), piperonyl butoxide-treated LLINs (PBO-LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and long-lasting microbial larviciding (LLML). The aims were to determine if PBO-LLINs or LLIN+IRS combination is more effective for initial interventions than LLINs and to identify the most effective intervention.

To what extent are the antimalarial markets in African countries ready for a transition to triple artemisinin-based combination therapies

September 1, 2021 - 17:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Haan F, Bolarinwa OA, Amaratunga C, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Aug 31;16(8):e0256567

Triple artemisinin-based combination therapies (TACTs) are being developed as a response to artemisinin and partner drug resistance in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia. In African countries, where current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are still effective, TACTs have the potential to benefit the larger community and future patients by mitigating the risk of drug resistance. This study explores the extent to which the antimalarial drug markets in African countries are ready for a transition to TACTs.

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