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Africa

Evidence of positively selected G6PD A- allele reduces risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection in African population on Bioko Island

January 15, 2020 - 09:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Liang XY, Chen JT, Ma YB, Huang HY, Xie DD, Monte-Nguba SM, Ehapo CS, Eyi UM, Zheng YZ, Liu XZ, Zha GC, Lin LY, Chen WZ, Zhou X, Lin M
Reference: 
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019 Dec 24:e1061

Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an essential enzyme that protects red blood cells from oxidative damage. Although G6PD‐deficient alleles appear to confer a protective effect of malaria, the link with clinical protection against Plasmodium infection is conflicting.

Effects of school-based physical activity and multi-micronutrient supplementation intervention on growth, health and well-being of schoolchildren in three African countries: the KaziAfya cluster randomised controlled trial protocol with a 2 × 2 factorial

January 14, 2020 - 16:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gerber M, Ayekoé SA, Utzinger J, et al.
Reference: 
Trials, 2020 Jan 6; 21(1):22

In low- and middle-income countries, infectious diseases remain a key public health issue. Additionally, non-communicable diseases are a rapidly growing public health problem that impose a considerable burden on population health. One way to address this dual disease burden, is to incorporate (lifestyle) health promotion measures within the education sector. In the planned study, we will (i) assess and compare physical activity, physical fitness, micronutrient status, body composition, infections with soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, inflammatory and cardiovascular health risk markers, cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and sleep in schoolchildren in Côte d’Ivoire, South Africa and Tanzania. We will (ii) determine the bi- and multivariate associations between these variables and (iii) examine the effects of a school-based health intervention that consists of physical activity, multi-micronutrient supplementation, or both.

Upsurge of malaria transmission after indoor residual spraying withdrawal in Atacora region in Benin, West Africa

January 7, 2020 - 14:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rock Yves Aïkpon, Gil Padonou, Martin Akogbéto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:3, 3 January 2020

In Benin, malaria vector control mostly relies on long-lasting, insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) operations. From 2011 to 2016, an IRS programme has been implemented in Atacora region. However, in 2017 the programme was withdrawn from two other regions in the northern part of the country, with hopes that gains would be relatively sustained because of the seasonality of malaria transmission. What would be the vulnerability of populations to malaria after the withdrawal of IRS?

Not Open Access | Severe Malaria in African Children — The Need for Continuing Investment

December 23, 2019 - 15:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kathryn Maitland
Reference: 
N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 22; 375(25): 2416–2417.

In large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the start of the seasonal rains means that within weeks, hospitals will witness a sharp upsurge in admissions to their pediatric wards. Many children who are admitted will be suffering from life-threatening complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, such as coma and convulsions (cerebral malaria), severe anemia (requiring urgent lifesaving transfusion), and rapid breathing (due to severe metabolic acidosis).

How far is the journey before malaria is knocked out of Zimbabwe? (or Africa): a commentary

December 17, 2019 - 16:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Clive Shiff
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:423, 16 December 2019

Recent publications and statements have drawn attention to a sustainable system of managing malaria control interventions globally but especially on the Continent of Africa. Arbitrary and unstable governments often interfere with health programmes, causing upsurges in malaria transmission as well as other health issues. A well-run health infrastructure will deal with public health as a whole.

Functional genetic validation of key genes conferring insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

December 10, 2019 - 11:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adolfi A, Poulton B, Anthousi A, Macilwee S, Ranson H, Lycett GJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 4. pii: 201914633

Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still lacking.

First malaria vaccine rolled out in Africa - despite limited efficacy and nagging safety concerns

November 28, 2019 - 13:29 -- Malaria World

Science, Nov. 26, 2019: by Jop de Vrieze

MALAWI—In a small room at the Phalula Health Centre in southern Malawi's Balaka district, two young mothers are sitting on a wooden bench, each with a 5-month-old baby on their lap. Across from them, behind a desk, sits Alfred Kaponya, a community health worker. A colleague is busy preparing a vaccine, tapping the syringe to dislodge bubbles. Kaponya explains the procedure to the women, writes down the vaccines' serial numbers in the children's vaccination booklets, and copies them onto a spreadsheet in his binder.

Problem formulation for gene drive mosquitoes designed to reduce malaria transmission in Africa: results from four regional consultations 2016–2018

October 22, 2019 - 05:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John L. Teem, Aggrey Ambali, Barbara Glover, Jeremy Ouedraogo, Diran Makinde and Andrew Roberts
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:347, 15 October 2019

Gene drive mosquitoes have been proposed as a possible means to reduce the transmission of malaria in Africa. Because this technology has no prior use-history at this time, environmental risk assessments for gene drive mosquitoes will benefit from problem formulation—an organized and ordered process to identify protection goals and potential pathways to harm to the environment, or animal or human health. Recognizing this need, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), with support from African and international partners, organized four regional consultative workshops in Africa to initiate this process.

Continent: 

Malaria around large dams in Africa: effect of environmental and transmission endemicity factors

September 10, 2019 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Solomon Kibret, Jonathan Lautze, Matthew McCartney, Luxon Nhamo and Guiyun Yan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:303, 3 September 2019

The impact of large dams on malaria has received widespread attention. However, understanding how dam topography and transmission endemicity influence malaria incidences is limited.

Applying next-generation sequencing to track falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

September 10, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sofonias K. Tessema, Jaishree Raman, Craig W. Duffy, Deus S. Ishengoma, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa and Bryan Greenhouse
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:268, 3 September 2019

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are increasingly being used to address a diverse range of biological and epidemiological questions.

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