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Africa

Evaluation of different deployment strategies for larviciding to control malaria: a simulation study

July 28, 2021 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manuela Runge, Salum Mapua, Ismail Nambunga, Thomas A. Smith, Nakul Chitnis, Fredros Okumu and Emilie Pothin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:324, 27 July 2021

Larviciding against malaria vectors in Africa has been limited to indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets, but is increasingly being considered by some countries as a complementary strategy. However, despite progress towards improved larvicides and new tools for mapping or treating mosquito-breeding sites, little is known about the optimal deployment strategies for larviciding in different transmission and seasonality settings.

Plasmodium falciparum K13 mutations in Africa and Asia impact artemisinin resistance and parasite fitness

July 21, 2021 - 17:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stokes BH, Dhingra SK, Fidock DA, et al.
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Jul 19;10:e66277

The emergence of mutant K13-mediated artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites has led to widespread treatment failure across Southeast Asia. In Africa, K13-propeller genotyping confirms the emergence of the R561H mutation in Rwanda and highlights the continuing dominance of wild-type K13 elsewhere.

The lead-up to epidemic transmission: malaria trends and control interventions in Burundi 2000 to 2019

July 7, 2021 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Denis Sinzinkayo, Dismas Baza, Virgile Gnanguenon and Cristian Koepfli
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:298, 2 July 2021

Burundi has experienced an increase in malaria cases since 2000, reaching 843,000 cases per million inhabitants in 2019, a more than twofold increase compared to the early 2000s. Burundi thus contrasts the decreasing number of cases in many other African countries. To evaluate the impact of malaria control on this increase, data on interventions from 2000 to 2019 were compiled.

Iron Deficiency Is Associated With Reduced Levels of Plasmodium falciparum-specific Antibodies in African Children

July 6, 2021 - 14:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bundi CK, Nalwoga A, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 1;73(1):43-49

Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria are common causes of ill-health and disability among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Although iron is critical for the acquisition of humoral immunity, little is known about the effects of ID on antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Not Open Access | Protection against COVID-19 in African population: Immunology, genetics, and malaria clues for therapeutic targets

July 6, 2021 - 14:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Altable M, de la Serna JM
Reference: 
Virus Res. 2021 Jul 2;299:198347

There is a marked discrepancy between SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and COVID-19 cases and deaths in Africa.

Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 Mutations, 9 Countries in Africa, 2014-2018

July 6, 2021 - 13:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Schmedes SE, Patel D, Talundzic E, et al.
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Jul;27(7):1902-1908

The spread of drug resistance to antimalarial treatments poses a serious public health risk globally. To combat this risk, molecular surveillance of drug resistance is imperative. We report the prevalence of mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 propeller domain associated with partial artemisinin resistance, which we determined by using Sanger sequencing samples from patients enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies from 9 sub-Saharan countries during 2014-2018.

NOT Open Access | Increasing proportions of relapsing parasite species among imported malaria in China's Guangxi Province from Western and Central Africa

June 30, 2021 - 13:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liu P, Shen L, Yang Z, et al.
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 21;43:102130

Travel-related malaria in non-endemic areas returning from endemic areas presents important challenges to diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria to newly malaria-free countries poses further threats of malaria re-introduction and potential resurgence. For those traveling to places with high Plasmodium falciparum prevalence, prophylaxis against this parasite is recommended, whereas causal prophylaxis against relapsing malaria is often overlooked.

Identifying prognostic factors of severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia in African children with severe falciparum malaria: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

June 30, 2021 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Grace Mzumara, Stije Leopold, Kevin Marsh, Arjen Dondorp, Eric O. Ohuma and Mavuto Mukaka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:282, 25 June 2021

Severe metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury are major causes of mortality in children with severe malaria but are often underdiagnosed in low resource settings.

Impact of an accelerated melting of Greenland on malaria distribution over Africa

June 29, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Chemison A, Ramstein G, Tompkins AM, Defrance D, Camus G, Charra M, Caminade C
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Jun 25;12(1):3971

Studies about the impact of future climate change on diseases have mostly focused on standard Representative Concentration Pathway climate change scenarios. These scenarios do not account for the non-linear dynamics of the climate system. A rapid ice-sheet melting could occur, impacting climate and consequently societies.

NOT Open Access | Larval habitat selection by females of two malaria vectors in response to predation risk

June 23, 2021 - 14:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sougué E, Dabiré RK, Roux O
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jun 19:106016

For species lacking parental care, selection of a suitable habitat for their offspring, with a limited predation risk, is important. The ability of two African malaria mosquito females to detect a predation threat for their larvae was assessed through an oviposition choice test design. Our results suggest that gravid females of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii (Diptera, Culicidae) were able to detect the presence of a predator (Anisops jaczewskii, Notonectidae, Hemiptera; backswimmer).

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