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Africa

NOT Open Access | Intervention of standardized ethanol leaf extract of Annickia polycarpa, (DC.) Setten and Maas ex I.M. Turner. (Annonaceae), in Plasmodium berghei infested mice produced anti-malaria action and normalized gross hematological indices

March 3, 2021 - 16:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kumatia EK, Ayertey F, Appiah-Opong R, Bagyour GK, Asare KO, Mbatcho VC, Dabo J
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Mar 1;267:113449

Malaria is a global public health burden due to large number of annual infections and casualties caused by its hematological complications. The bark of Annickia polycarpa is an effective anti-malaria agent in African traditional medicine. However, there is no standardization parameters for A. polycarpa. The anti-malaria properties of its leaf are also not known.

Deploying triple artemisinin-based combination therapy (TACT) for malaria treatment in Africa: ethical and practical considerations

March 3, 2021 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paulina Tindana, Freek de Haan, Chanaki Amaratunga, Mehul Dhorda, Rob W. van der Pluijm, Arjen M. Dondorp and Phaik Yeong Cheah
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:119, 27 February 2021

Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, particularly in children under five years of age. Availability of effective anti-malarial drug treatment is a cornerstone for malaria control and eventual malaria elimination. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is worldwide the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but the ACT drugs are starting to fail in Southeast Asia because of drug resistance.

Mini-outbreak response for malaria using indoor residual spraying

March 2, 2021 - 11:24 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Hsiang MS, Mumbengegwi D, Chimumbwa J
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):771-773

In malaria-endemic settings, vector control is a key public health intervention and accounts for the majority of global spending on malaria. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide before peak malaria seasons is one widely used and effective approach.

NOT Open Access | Malaria is a cause of iron deficiency in African children

February 25, 2021 - 08:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Muriuki JM, Mentzer AJ, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Med. 2021 Feb 22

Malaria and iron deficiency (ID) are common and interrelated public health problems in African children. Observational data suggest that interrupting malaria transmission reduces the prevalence of ID1. To test the hypothesis that malaria might cause ID, we used sickle cell trait (HbAS, rs334 ), a genetic variant that confers specific protection against malaria2, as an instrumental variable in Mendelian randomization analyses.

NOT Open Access | The genetic architecture of target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

February 16, 2021 - 15:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Clarkson CS, Miles A, Harding NJ, O'Reilly AO, Weetman D, Kwiatkowski D, Donnelly MJ
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2021 Feb 16

Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is a major concern for malaria vector control. Pyrethroids target the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC), an essential compo nent of the mosquito nervous system. Substitutions in the amino acid sequence can inducing a resistance phenotype. We use whole-genome sequence data from phase 2 of the Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Project (Ag1000G) to provide a comprehensive account of genetic variation in the Vgsc gene across 13 African countries. In addition to known resistance alleles, we describe 20 other non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions at appreciable population frequency, and map these variants onto a protein model to investigate the likelihood of a pyrethroid resistance phenotypes.

Molecular surveillance of pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13-propeller mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates imported from Africa to China

February 8, 2021 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fang Huang, He Yan, Jing-Bo Xue, Yan-Wen Cui, Shui-Sen Zhou, Zhi-Gui Xia, Rabindra Abeyasinghe, Pascal Ringwald and Xiao-Nong Zhou
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:73, 6 February 2021

The emergence and spread of multidrug resistance poses a significant risk to malaria control and eradication goals in the world. There has been no indigenous malaria cases reported in China since 2017, and China is approaching national malaria elimination. Therefore, anti-malarial drug resistance surveillance and tracking the emergence and spread of imported drug-resistant malaria cases will be necessary in a post-elimination phase in China.

Circumsporozoite Surface Protein-based malaria vaccines: a review

February 6, 2021 - 10:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Almeida MEM, Vasconcelos MGS, Tarragô AM, Mariúba LAM
Reference: 
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2021 Jan 29;63:e11

Malaria represents a serious public health problem, presenting with high rates of incidence, morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. According to the World Health Organization, in 2018 there were 228 million cases and 405 thousand deaths caused by this disease in the world, affecting mainly children and pregnant women in Africa. Despite the programs carried out to control this disease, drug resistance and invertebrate vector resistance to insecticides have generated difficulties. An efficient vaccine against malaria would be a strategy with a high impact on the eradication and control of this disease.

Estimating the Fraction of Severe Malaria among Malaria-Positive Children: Analysis of Household Surveys in 19 Malaria-Endemic Countries in Africa

February 6, 2021 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor C, Namaste SML, Lowell J, Useem J, Yé Y
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Feb 1:tpmd201351

To date, the only robust estimates of severe malaria cases include children who present to the formal healthcare system. It is a challenge to use these data because of varying age ranges of reporting, different diagnosis techniques, surveillance methods, and healthcare utilization. This analysis examined data from 37 Demographic and Health Surveys and Malaria Indicator Surveys across 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2011 and 2018.

NOT Open Access | A prospective mechanism and source of cholesterol uptake by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes co-cultured with HepG2 cells

February 3, 2021 - 14:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hayakawa EH, Kato H, Nardone GA, Usukura J
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Feb;80:102179

Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasites still cause lethal infections worldwide, especially in Africa (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/world-malaria-report-2019). During P. falciparum blood-stage infections in humans, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels in the blood become low. Because P. falciparum lacks a de novo cholesterol synthesis pathway, it must import cholesterol from the surrounding environment. However, the origin of the cholesterol and how it is taken up by the parasite across the multiple membranes that surround it is not fully understood.

Bionomics and ecology of Anopheles merus along the East and Southern Africa coast

February 3, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bartilol B, Omedo I, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Rono MK
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 28;14(1):84

Malaria transmission persists despite the scale-up of interventions such as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Understanding the entomological drivers of transmission is key for the design of effective and sustainable tools to address the challenge. Recent research findings indicate a shift in vector populations from the notorious Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) as a dominant vector to other species as one of the factors contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission.

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