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Epidemiological risk factors for clinical malaria infection in the highlands of Western Kenya

July 1, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Walters M. Essendi, Anne M. Vardo-Zalik, Eugenia Lo, Maxwell G. Machani, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:211, 24 June 2019

Understanding the complex heterogeneity of risk factors that can contribute to an increased risk of malaria at the individual and household level will enable more effective use of control measures. The objective of this study was to understand individual and household factors that influence clinical malaria infection among individuals in the highlands of Western Kenya.

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The first introduced malaria case reported from Sri Lanka after elimination: implications for preventing the re-introduction of malaria in recently eliminated countries

July 1, 2019 - 15:28 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Vissundara M. Karunasena, Manonath Marasinghe, Dewanee Ranaweera, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:210, 24 June 2019

There has been no local transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka for 6 years following elimination of the disease in 2012. Malaria vectors are prevalent in parts of the country, and imported malaria cases continue to be reported. The country is therefore at risk of malaria being re-established. The first case of introduced vivax malaria in the country is reported here, and the surveillance and response system that contained the further spread of this infection is described.

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Safety and tolerability of single low-dose primaquine in a low-intensity transmission area in South Africa: an open-label, randomized controlled trial

July 1, 2019 - 15:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jaishree Raman, Elizabeth Allen, Lesley Workman, Aaron Mabuza, Hendrik Swanepoel, Gillian Malatje, John Frean, Lubbe Wiesner and Karen I. Barnes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:209, 24 June 2019

To reduce onward falciparum malaria transmission, the World Health Organization recommends adding single low-dose (SLD) primaquine to artemisinin-based combination treatment in low transmission areas. However, uptake of this recommendation has been relatively slow given concerns about whether individual risks justify potential community benefit. This study was undertaken to generate comprehensive local data on the risk–benefit profile of SLD primaquine deployment in a pre-elimination area in South Africa.

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Divergent roles for the RH5 complex components, CyRPA and RIPR in human-infective malaria parasites

June 24, 2019 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellen Knuepfer, Katherine E. Wright, Anthony A. Holder, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(6): e1007809

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which invade and replicate in erythrocytes.

Smallest Anopheles farauti occur during the peak transmission season in the Solomon Islands

June 24, 2019 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kimberley McLaughlin, Tanya L. Russell, Allan Apairamo, Hugo Bugoro, Jance Oscar, Robert D. Cooper, Nigel W. Beebe, Scott A. Ritchie and Thomas R. Burkot
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:208, 24 June 2019

Malaria transmission varies in intensity amongst Solomon Island villages where Anopheles farauti is the only vector. This variation in transmission intensity might be explained by density-dependent processes during An. farauti larval development, as density dependence can impact adult size with associated fitness costs and daily survivorship.

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LLIN Evaluation in Uganda Project (LLINEUP): factors associated with childhood parasitaemia and anaemia 3 years after a national long-lasting insecticidal net distribution campaign: a cross-sectional survey

June 24, 2019 - 16:02 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sheila Rugnao, Samuel Gonahasa, Sarah G. Staedke, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:207, 24 June 2019

Recent reductions in malaria burden have been attributed largely to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). In March–June 2017, approximately 3 years after a national LLIN distribution campaign, a cross-sectional community survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with malaria parasitaemia and anaemia, in advance of Uganda’s 2017–2018 LLIN campaign.

Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate–amodiaquine and artemether–lumefantrine combinations for uncomplicated malaria in 10 sentinel sites across Ghana: 2015–2017

June 24, 2019 - 16:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Benjamin Abuaku, Nancy O. Duah-Quashie, Lydia Quaye, Sena A. Matrevi, Neils Quashie, Akosua Gyasi, Felicia Owusu-Antwi, Keziah Malm and Kwadwo Koram
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:206, 24 June 2019

Routine surveillance on the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been ongoing in Ghana since 2005. The sixth round of surveillance was conducted between 2015 and 2017 to determine the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate–amodiaquine (AS–AQ) and artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in 10 sentinel sites across the country.

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Signatures of divergent anti-malarial treatment responses in peripheral blood from adults and young children in Malawi

June 24, 2019 - 15:58 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Paul L. Maurizio, Hubaida Fuseini, Gerald Tegha, Mina Hosseinipour and Kristina De Paris
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:205, 24 June 2019

Heterogeneity in the immune response to parasite infection is mediated in part by differences in host genetics, gender, and age group. In infants and young children, ongoing immunological maturation often results in increased susceptibility to infection and variable responses to drug treatment, increasing the risk of complications. Even though significant age-associated effects on host cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection have been identified, age-associated effects on uncomplicated malaria infection and anti-malarial treatment remain poorly understood.

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Prospects and strategies for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region: a qualitative study

June 24, 2019 - 15:53 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Nils Kaehler, Bipin Adhikari, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Lorenz von Seidlein, Nicholas P. J. Day, Daniel H. Paris, Marcel Tanner and Christopher Pell
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:203, 20 June 2019

As malaria elimination becomes a goal in malaria-endemic nations, questions of feasibility become critical. This article explores the potential challenges associated with this goal and future strategies for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.

Development of molecular assays to detect target-site mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance in malaria vectors from Latin America

June 24, 2019 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Juan C. Lol, David Castañeda, Lucy Mackenzie-Impoinvil, Carla G. Romero, Audrey Lenhart and Norma R. Padilla
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:202, 20 June 2019

Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America.

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