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Prevalence and proportion of Plasmodium spp. triple mixed infections compared with double mixed infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

June 26, 2020 - 11:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni D. Milanez and Frederick R. Masangkay
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:224, 24 June 2020

Although mixed infection by two Plasmodium species has been recognized, mixed infection by three different Plasmodium species within one individual has not been clarified. This study sought to determine the pooled prevalence and proportion of triple mixed Plasmodium spp. infection compared with double mixed infection.

Identification and characterization of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) at three sites of varying malaria transmission intensities in Uganda

June 26, 2020 - 11:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alex K. Musiime, David L. Smith, Steve W. Lindsay, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:221, 23 June 2020

Over the last two decades, there has been remarkable progress in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, due mainly to the massive deployment of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Despite these gains, it is clear that in many situations, additional interventions are needed to further reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) approach through its Global Vector Control Response 2017–2030. However, prior roll-out of larval source management (LSM) as part of IVM, knowledge on ecology of larval aquatic habitats is required.

NOT Open Access | Therapeutically-Rational Exchange (T-REX) of Gerbich-Negative Red Blood Cells Can be Evaluated in Papua New Guinea as "a Rescue Adjunct" for Patients with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

June 23, 2020 - 16:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jajosky RP, Jajosky AN, Jajosky PG
Reference: 
Ther Apher Dial. 2020 Jun 21q

“Conventional exchange transfusion” ‐ that delivers nondescript “standard issue” units of red blood cells (RBCs) ‐ is used worldwide to rescue dying Plasmodium falciparum (Pf ) malaria patients. Recently, exchanging special malaria‐resistant RBCs has been recommended to prevent random delivery of malaria‐susceptible RBCs that promote Pf infection.

Transcriptional profiling and immunophenotyping show sustained activation of blood monocytes in subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infection

June 23, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Loughland JR, Woodberry T, Minigo G, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Transl Immunology. 2020 Jun 18;9(6):e1144

Malaria, caused by Plasmodium infection, remains a major global health problem. Monocytes are integral to the immune response, yet their transcriptional and functional responses in primary Plasmodium falciparum infection and in clinical malaria are poorly understood.

NOT Open Access | Malaria According to GARP: A New Trail towards Anti-disease Vaccination

June 23, 2020 - 16:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hon C, Matuschewski K
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Jun 17:S1471-4922(20)30143-4

Naturally acquired anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunity protects first and foremost against severe disease.

Low genetic diversity and strong immunogenicity within the apical membrane antigen-1 of Plasmodium ovale spp. imported from Africa to China

June 23, 2020 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lei Y, Shen F, Cheng Y, et al.
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2020 Jun 17:105591

Malaria is still an important challenge for global public health because of its extensive mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium ovale is mainly distributed in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. it includes two distinct ovale malaria species, which are P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is an asexual blood-stage protein which is essential for Plasmodium. Thus far, no study on gene polymorphism and immunogenicity of P. ovale AMA-1 (PoAMA-1) has been conducted. Amplified poama1 gene products from 14 P ovale curtisi samples and 12 P ovale wallikeri samples imported from Africa to Jiangsu Province, China were sequenced and their polymorphisms were analyzed.

A Multistage Formulation Based on Full-Length CSP and AMA-1 Ectodomain of Plasmodium vivax Induces High Antibody Titers and T-cells and Partially Protects Mice Challenged with a Transgenic Plasmodium berghei Parasite

June 23, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lima LC, Marques RF, Gimenez AM, Françoso KS, Aliprandini E, Camargo TM, Aguiar ACC, Pereira DB, Renia L, Amino R, Soares IS
Reference: 
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 916

Infections with Plasmodium vivax are predominant in the Americas, representing 75% of malaria cases. Previously perceived as benign, malaria vivax is, in fact, a highly debilitating and economically important disease. Considering the high complexity of the malaria parasite life cycle, it has been hypothesized that an effective vaccine formulation against Plasmodium should contain multiple antigens expressed in different parasite stages.

Severity and mortality of severe Plasmodium ovale infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

June 23, 2020 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GD, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(6): e0235014

Plasmodium ovale can infect humans, causing malaria disease. We aimed to investigate the severity and mortality of severe P. ovale infection to increase the awareness of physicians regarding the prognosis of this severe disease and outcome-related deaths in countries in which this disease is endemic. Articles that were published in the PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases prior to January 5, 2020 and reported the prevalence of severe P. ovale infection were systematically searched and reviewed.

Cross-species reactivity of antibodies against Plasmodium vivax blood-stage antigens to Plasmodium knowlesi

June 23, 2020 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Muh F, Kim N, Han ET, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(6): e0008323

Malaria is caused by multiple different species of protozoan parasites, and interventions in the pre-elimination phase can lead to drastic changes in the proportion of each species causing malaria. In endemic areas, cross-reactivity may play an important role in the protection and blocking transmission. Thus, successful control of one species could lead to an increase in other parasite species.

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