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Proof of concept: used malaria rapid diagnostic tests applied for parallel sequencing for surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau during 2014–2017

July 30, 2019 - 08:04 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sidsel Nag, Johan Ursing, Amabelia Rodrigues, Marina Crespo, Camilla Krogsgaard, Ole Lund, Frank M. Aarestrup, Michael Alifrangis and PouL-Erik Kofoed
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:252, 26 July 2019

Large-scale surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance is an attractive method of resistance monitoring, to complement therapeutic efcacy studies in settings where the latter are logistically challenging.

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Factors associated with uptake of optimal doses of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women in Uganda: analysis of data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, 2016

July 29, 2019 - 15:54 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Denis Okethwangu, Jimmy Opigo, Stella Atugonza, Catherine T. Kizza, Monica Nabatanzi, Claire Biribawa, Daniel Kyabayinze and Alex R. Ario
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:250, 26 July 2019

The Uganda National Malaria Control Programme recognizes the importance of minimizing the effect of malaria among pregnant women. Accordingly, strategies including intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) have been scaled up. Uptake of IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Uganda, aged 15–49 years who had had a live birth 2 years preceding the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) was determined and factors associated with the uptake of optimal IPTp-SP doses were identified.

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Status of insecticide resistance and its biochemical and molecular mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Afghanistan

July 29, 2019 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noor Halim Zahid Safi, Abdul Ali Ahmadi, Sami Nahzat, Supriya Warusavithana, Naimullah Safi, Reza Valadan, Atie Shemshadian, Marzieh Sharifi, Ahmadali Enayati and Janet Hemingway
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:249, 26 July 2019

Insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in eastern Afghanistan, has been reported previously. This study describes the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance to facilitate effective vector control and insecticide resistance management.

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Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa

July 29, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Janetta E. Skarp, Thomas S. Churcher, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 23, 2019 116 (30) 15086-15095

The antimalarial efficacy of the most important vector control interventions—long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)—primarily protect against mosquitoes’ biting people when they are in bed and indoors.

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Modelling the relationship between malaria prevalence as a measure of transmission and mortality across age groups

July 23, 2019 - 15:32 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sammy Khagayi, Meghna Desai, Penelope Vounatsou, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:247, 23 July 2019

Parasite prevalence has been used widely as a measure of malaria transmission, especially in malaria endemic areas. However, its contribution and relationship to malaria mortality across different age groups has not been well investigated. Previous studies in a health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) platform in western Kenya quantified the contribution of incidence and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) to mortality. The study assessed the relationship between outcomes of malaria parasitaemia surveys and mortality across age groups.

Multiplex serology demonstrate cumulative prevalence and spatial distribution of malaria in Ethiopia

July 23, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ashenafi Assefa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Jimee Hwang, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:246, 22 July 2019

Measures of malaria burden using microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in cross-sectional household surveys may incompletely describe the burden of malaria in low-transmission settings. This study describes the pattern of malaria transmission in Ethiopia using serological antibody estimates derived from a nationwide household survey completed in 2015.

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Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 23, 2019 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD012656

This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

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What is community engagement and how can it drive malaria elimination? Case studies and stakeholder interviews

July 21, 2019 - 21:50 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Kimberly Baltzell, Kelly Harvard, Marguerite Hanley, Roly Gosling and Ingrid Chen
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:245, 17 July 2019

In light of increasing complexity of identifying and treating malaria cases in low transmission settings, operational solutions are needed to increase effective delivery of interventions. Community engagement (CE) is at the forefront of this conversation given the shift toward creating local and site-specific solutions. Malaria programmes often confuse CE with providing information to the community or implementing community-based interventions. This study seeks to expand on CE approaches for malaria by looking to a variety of health and development programmes for lessons that can be applied to malaria elimination.

Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

July 21, 2019 - 21:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:243, 17 July 2019

Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.

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Prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection in immigrants living in Spain

July 21, 2019 - 21:43 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Isabel Fradejas, José Miguel Rubio, Ana Pérez‑Ayala, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:242, 17 July 2019

The importance of submicroscopic malaria infections in high-transmission areas could contribute to maintain the parasite cycle. Regarding non-endemic areas, its importance remains barely understood because parasitaemia in these afebrile patients is usually below the detection limits for microscopy, hence molecular techniques are often needed for its diagnosis. In addition to this, the lack of standardized protocols for the screening of submicroscopic malaria in immigrants from endemic areas may underestimate the infection with Plasmodium spp. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria in afebrile immigrants living in a non-endemic area.

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