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In silico analysis for factors affecting anti-malarial penetration into red blood cells

June 26, 2020 - 15:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Natapol Pornputtapong, Bovornpat Suriyapakorn, Anchisa Satayamapakorn, Kanidsorn Larpadisorn, Pariyachut Janviriyakul and Phisit Khemawoot
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:215, 23 June 2020

Malaria is a parasitic disease that produces significant infection in red blood cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between factors affecting the penetration of currently available anti-malarials into red blood cells.

Plasmodium vivax liver stage assay platforms using Indian clinical isolates

June 26, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pradeep A. Subramani, Neha Vartak-Sharma, Varadharajan Sundaramurthy, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:214, 22 June 2020

Vivax malaria is associated with significant morbidity and economic loss, and constitutes the bulk of malaria cases in large parts of Asia and South America as well as recent case reports in Africa. The widespread prevalence of vivax is a challenge to global malaria elimination programmes. Vivax malaria control is particularly challenged by existence of dormant liver stage forms that are difficult to treat and are responsible for multiple relapses, growing drug resistance to the asexual blood stages and host-genetic factors that preclude use of specific drugs like primaquine capable of targeting Plasmodium vivax liver stages. Despite an obligatory liver-stage in the Plasmodium life cycle, both the difficulty in obtaining P. vivax sporozoites and the limited availability of robust host cell models permissive to P. vivax infection are responsible for the limited knowledge of hypnozoite formation biology and relapse mechanisms, as well as the limited capability to do drug screening. Although India accounts for about half of vivax malaria cases world-wide, very little is known about the vivax liver stage forms in the context of Indian clinical isolates.

Coverage of community case management for malaria through CHWs: a quantitative assessment using primary household surveys of high-burden areas in Chhattisgarh state of India

June 26, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Samir Garg, Preeti Gurung, Mukesh Dewangan and Prabodh Nanda
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:213, 22 June 2020

Community Case Management of Malaria (CCMM) has been implemented through community health workers (CHWs) in many countries. Existing studies have shown that CHWs can be viable means of implementing CCMM. However, not many studies have examined the coverage under large-scale CCMM programmes. India is a big contributor to global malaria burden. Chhattisgarh is a leading state in India in terms of malaria incidence and mortality. CCMM was implemented on a large scale through the ‘mitanin’ CHWs in rural Chhattisgarh from 2015. Under CCMM, 37,696 CHWs in 84 high-burden administrative blocks of the state were trained and equipped with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and chloroquine.

Programmatic options for monitoring malaria in elimination settings: easy access group surveys to investigate Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology in two regions with differing endemicity in Haiti

June 26, 2020 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Druetz T, Stresman G, Ashton RA, van den Hoogen LL, Joseph V, Fayette C, Monestime F, Hamre KE, Chang MA, Lemoine JF, Drakeley C, Eisele TP
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Jun 23; 18(1):141

As in most eliminating countries, malaria transmission is highly focal in Haiti. More granular information, including identifying asymptomatic infections, is needed to inform programmatic efforts, monitor intervention effectiveness, and identify remaining foci. Easy access group (EAG) surveys can supplement routine surveillance with more granular information on malaria in a programmatically tractable way. This study assessed how and which type of venue for EAG surveys can improve understanding malaria epidemiology in two regions with different transmission profiles.

A genotypical study in Benin comparing the carriage of P. falciparum infections before pregnancy and in the early pregnancy: story of a persistent infection

June 26, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jafari-Guemouri S, Courtois L, Mama A, Rouas B, Neto Braga G, Accrombessi M, Massougbodji A, Ding XC, Tuikue Ndam N, Fievet N, Briand V
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 22:ciaa841

Malaria infections in the first trimester of pregnancy are frequent and deleterious for both mother and child health. To investigate if these early infections are newly acquired or already present in the host, we assessed whether parasites detected before pregnancy and those detected in early pregnancy are the same infection.

NOT Open Access | High-throughput virtual screening approach involving pharmacophore mapping, ADME filtering, molecular docking and MM-GBSA to identify new dual target inhibitors of PfDHODH and PfCytbc1 complex to combat drug resistant malaria

June 26, 2020 - 12:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rawat R, Verma SM
Reference: 
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020 Jun 24:1-12

Emerging cases of drug resistance against Artemisinin combination therapies which are the current and the last line of defense against malaria makes the situation very alarming. Due to the liability of single-target drugs to be more prone to drug resistance, the trend of development of dual or multi-target inhibitors is emerging. Recently, a malaria box molecule, MMV007571 which is a well known new permeability pathways inhibitor was investigated to be also multi-targeting Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bc1 complex. The aspiration behind this study was to use the information of its pharmacophoric features essential for binding as two of its new targets.

Comparative performance of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests, Vikia Malaria Pf/Pan, Meriline-Meriscreen Pf/Pv/Pan, Right Sign Malaria Pf/Pan, and Right Sign Malaria Pf, among febrile patients in Gabon

June 26, 2020 - 12:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ditombi BCM, Minko JI, Tsamba RP, Ngomo JMN, Nymane T, Ognagosso FBB, M'bondoukwe NP, Mawili-Mboumba DP, Akotet MKB
Reference: 
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2020 Jun 22; 53:e20190274

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are selected based on their performances. Here, we compared the diagnostic performance of different malaria RDTs.

Different distribution of malaria parasite in left and right extremities of vertebrate hosts translates into differences in parasite transmission

June 26, 2020 - 12:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pigeault R, Isaïa J, Yerbanga RS, Dabiré KR, Ouédraogo JB, Cohuet A, Lefèvre T, Christe P
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 23;10(1):10183

Malaria, a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp., remains a major global cause of mortality. Optimization of disease control strategies requires a thorough understanding of the processes underlying parasite transmission. While the number of transmissible stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium in blood is frequently used as an indicator of host-to-mosquito transmission potential, this relationship is not always clear. Significant effort has been made in developing molecular tools that improve gametocyte density estimation and therefore prediction of mosquito infection rates.

Caregiver and community perceptions and experiences participating in an infant malaria prevention trial of PfSPZ Vaccine administered by direct venous inoculation: a qualitative study in Siaya County, western Kenya

June 26, 2020 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Florence Achieng, Joseph G. Rosen, Reuben Yego Cherop, Simon Kariuki, Stephen L. Hoffman, Robert Seder, Martina Oneko and Laura C. Steinhardt
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:226, 24 June 2020

Despite available control strategies, malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, remain intractable. Malaria vaccination could substantially reduce malaria episodes and deaths. One vaccine candidate is the whole sporozoite PfSPZ Vaccine, consisting of irradiated cryopreserved sporozoites administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI). DVI may be less acceptable than more familiar administration routes, particularly intramuscular. As part of a PfSPZ Vaccine trial among infants in western Kenya, a qualitative study was conducted to explore caregiver and community perceptions of the malaria vaccine trial, including the unique DVI administration procedure.

Levels of knowledge regarding malaria causes, symptoms, and prevention measures among Malawian women of reproductive age

June 26, 2020 - 11:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alick Sixpence, Owen Nkoka, Gowokani C. Chirwa, Edith B. Milanzi, Charles Mangani, Don P. Mathanga and Peter A. M. Ntenda
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:225, 24 June 2020

Malawi is a malaria-endemic country and approximately 6 million cases are reported annually. Improving knowledge of malaria causes and symptoms, and the overall perception towards malaria and its preventive measures is vital for malaria control. The current study investigated the levels of knowledge of the causes, symptoms and prevention of malaria among Malawian women.

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