In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Most impact prediction of malaria vector control interventions has been based on African vectors. Anopheles albimanus, the main vector in Central America and the Caribbean, has higher intrinsic mortality, is more zoophilic and less likely to rest indoors. Therefore, relative impact among interventions may be different. Prioritizing interventions, in particular for eliminating Plasmodium falciparum from Haiti, should consider local vector characteristics.
The Mindray BC-6800 haematology analyzer (BC-6800) provides a dedicated flag ‘Infected RBC’ (InR) and the number of InR (InR#)/the permillage of InR (InR‰) in routine blood testing as a screening tool for malaria in endemic areas. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the BC-6800 flag parameter for aiding the diagnosis of malaria.
Despite recent strides made towards reducing the emergence of artemisinin resistance, inappropriate dispensing practices for anti-malarials in both private and public sectors affect treatment outcomes negatively. In Ghana, private retail pharmacies are the most accessible health facilities for managing diseases of common occurrence. However, there is growing concern about the number of patients harmed by dispensing errors in the management of malaria in retail pharmacies. Although considerable work has been done in this area, several questions regarding dispensing practices remain unanswered. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the predictors of appropriate dispensing practices for anti-malarials in community pharmacies in the La Nkwantanang-Madina municipality of Greater Accra, Ghana.
As areas move closer to malaria elimination, a combination of limited resources and increasing heterogeneity in case distribution and transmission favour a shift to targeted reactive interventions. Reactive case detection (RCD), the following up of additional individuals surrounding an index case, has the potential to target transmission pockets and identify asymptomatic cases in them. Current RCD implementation strategies vary, and it is unclear which are most effective in achieving elimination.
Ensuring universal access to malaria diagnosis and treatment is a key component of Pillar 1 of the World Health Organization Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030. To achieve this goal it is essential to know the types of facilities where the population seeks care as well as the malaria service readiness of these facilities in endemic countries.
Understanding the contribution of outdoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes to residual malaria transmission is important in terms of scaling up vector control towards malaria elimination in South Africa. The aim of this project was to assess the potential role of Anopheles parensis and other Anopheles species in residual malaria transmission, using sentinel surveillance sites in the uMkhanyakude District of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province.
Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2012, and the country received WHO-certification in 2016.
Malaria transmission is high in western Kenya and the asymptomatic infected population plays a significant role in driving the transmission. Mathematical modelling and simulation programs suggest that interventions targeting asymptomatic infections through mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA) have the potential to reduce malaria transmission when combined with existing interventions.
Modelling risk of malaria in longitudinal studies is common, because individuals are at risk for repeated infections over time. Malaria infections result in acquired immunity to clinical malaria disease. Prospective cohorts are an ideal design to relate the historical exposure to infection and development of clinical malaria over time, and analysis methods should consider the longitudinal nature of the data. Models must take into account the acquisition of immunity to disease that increases with each infection and the heterogeneous exposure to bites from infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Methods that fail to capture these important factors in malaria risk will not accurately model risk of malaria infection or disease.