Mosquitoes are the main vector of multiple diseases worldwide and transmit viral (malaria, chikungunya, encephalitis, yellow fever, as well as dengue fever), as well as bacterial diseases (tularemia). To manage the outbreak of mosquito populations, various management programs include the application of chemicals, followed by biological and genetic control.
The Greater Mekong subregion is a recurrent source of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This study aimed to characterise the extent and spread of resistance across this entire region between 2007 and 2018.
In the absence of an effective vaccine, the efficacy of antimalarial chemotherapies underpins the success of malaria control programmes. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which combine fast-acting artemisinin derivatives and longer-acting partner drugs, are the mainstay of treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in endemic regions.
Plasmodium invasion of red blood cells involves malaria proteins, such as reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5), RH5 interacting protein (RIPR), cysteine-rich protective antigen (CyRPA), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2), all of which are blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. So far, vaccines containing AMA1 alone have been unsuccessful in clinical trials.
The antibiotic actinonin kills malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by interfering with apicoplast function. Early evidence suggested that actinonin inhibited prokaryote-like post-translational modification in the apicoplast; mimicking its activity against bacteria. However, Amberg Johnson et al. (2017) identified the metalloprotease TgFtsH1 as the target of actinonin in the related parasite Toxoplasma gondii and implicated P. falciparum FtsH1 as a likely target in malaria parasites.
Disease surveillance systems are essential for effective disease intervention and control by monitoring disease prevalence as time series. To evaluate the severity of an epidemic, statistical methods are widely used to forecast the trend, seasonality, and the possible number of infections of a disease. However, most statistical methods are limited in revealing the underlying dynamics of disease transmission, which may be affected by various impact factors, such as environmental, meteorological, and physiological factors. In this study, we focus on investigating malaria transmission dynamics based on time series data.
Imported falciparum malaria from Africa has become a key public health challenge in Guizhou Province since 2012. Understanding the polymorphisms of molecular markers of drug resistance can guide selection of antimalarial drugs for the treatment of malaria. This study was aimed to analyze the polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller among imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province, China.
While Iran is on the path to eliminating malaria, the disease with 4.9 million estimated cases and 9300 estimated deaths in 2018 remains a serious health problem in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Iran and its range extends from Iraq to western China. Recently, the vector invaded new territories in Sri Lanka and countries in the Horn of Africa. Insecticide resistance in An. stephensi is a potential issue in controlling the spread of this vector.
In The Lancet Global Health, Alexandra Hogan and colleagues1 report the findings of a modelling study in which they estimate the number of excess deaths from HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria that could plausibly occur as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Unrestricted use of pesticides in agriculture is likely to increase insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, strategies for managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and public health sectors lack integration. This study explored the types and usage of agricultural pesticides, and awareness and management practices among retailers and farmers in Ulanga and Kilombero districts in south-eastern Tanzania, where Anopheles mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids.