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Not Open Access | Genetic engineering and bacterial pathogenesis against the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes

July 20, 2020 - 15:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Qasim M, Xiao H, He K, Omar MAA, Liu F, Ahmed S, Li F
Reference: 
Microb Pathog. 2020 Jul 14:104391

Mosquitoes are the main vector of multiple diseases worldwide and transmit viral (malaria, chikungunya, encephalitis, yellow fever, as well as dengue fever), as well as bacterial diseases (tularemia). To manage the outbreak of mosquito populations, various management programs include the application of chemicals, followed by biological and genetic control.

Molecular epidemiology of resistance to antimalarial drugs in the Greater Mekong subregion: an observational study

July 20, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Imwong M, Dhorda M, White NJ, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 14:S1473-3099(20)30228-0

The Greater Mekong subregion is a recurrent source of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This study aimed to characterise the extent and spread of resistance across this entire region between 2007 and 2018.

Knowing the enemy: genetics to track antimalarial resistance

July 20, 2020 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ménard D, Mayor A
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 14:S1473-3099(20)30271-1

In the absence of an effective vaccine, the efficacy of antimalarial chemotherapies  underpins the success of malaria control programmes. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which combine fast-acting artemisinin derivatives and longer-acting  partner drugs, are the mainstay of treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in endemic regions.

Bliss' and Loewe's additive and synergistic effects in Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition by AMA1-RON2L, RH5, RIPR and CyRPA antibody combinations

July 20, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Azasi Y, Gallagher SK, Diouf A, Dabbs RA, Jin J, Mian SY, Narum DL, Long CA, Gaur D, Draper SJ, Fay MP, Miller LH, Miura K
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 16; 10(1):11802

Plasmodium invasion of red blood cells involves malaria proteins, such as reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5), RH5 interacting protein (RIPR), cysteine-rich protective antigen (CyRPA), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2), all of which are blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. So far, vaccines containing AMA1 alone have been unsuccessful in clinical trials.

A single point mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum FtsH1 metalloprotease confers actinonin resistance

July 20, 2020 - 15:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Goodman CD, Uddin T, Spillman NJ, McFadden G
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Jul 17;9:e58629

The antibiotic actinonin kills malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by interfering with apicoplast function. Early evidence suggested that actinonin inhibited prokaryote-like post-translational modification in the apicoplast; mimicking its activity against bacteria. However, Amberg Johnson et al. (2017) identified the metalloprotease TgFtsH1 as the target of actinonin in the related parasite Toxoplasma gondii and implicated P. falciparum FtsH1 as a likely target in malaria parasites.

Inference and prediction of malaria transmission dynamics using time series data

July 20, 2020 - 15:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shi B, Lin S, Tan Q, Cao J, Zhou X, Xia S, Zhou XN, Liu J
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Jul 16;9(1):95

Disease surveillance systems are essential for effective disease intervention and control by monitoring disease prevalence as time series. To evaluate the severity of an epidemic, statistical methods are widely used to forecast the trend, seasonality, and the possible number of infections of a disease. However, most statistical methods are limited in revealing the underlying dynamics of disease transmission, which may be affected by various impact factors, such as environmental, meteorological, and physiological factors. In this study, we focus on investigating malaria transmission dynamics based on time series data.

Polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller genes in imported falciparum malaria isolates from Africa in Guizhou province, China

July 20, 2020 - 15:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
She D, Wang Z, Liang Q, Lu L, Huang Y, Zhang K, An D, Wu J
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 16;20(1):513

Imported falciparum malaria from Africa has become a key public health challenge in Guizhou Province since 2012. Understanding the polymorphisms of molecular markers of drug resistance can guide selection of antimalarial drugs for the treatment of malaria. This study was aimed to analyze the polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller among imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province, China.

Evolution of insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

July 20, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmadali Enayati, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Morteza Zaim and Janet Hemingway
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:258, 17 July 2020

While Iran is on the path to eliminating malaria, the disease with 4.9 million estimated cases and 9300 estimated deaths in 2018 remains a serious health problem in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Iran and its range extends from Iraq to western China. Recently, the vector invaded new territories in Sri Lanka and countries in the Horn of Africa. Insecticide resistance in An. stephensi is a potential issue in controlling the spread of this vector.

HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria: how can the impact of COVID-19 be minimised

July 20, 2020 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sands P
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Jul 13:S2214-109X (20)30317-X

In The   Lancet   Global   Health,   Alexandra   Hogan   and   colleagues1  report  the  findings  of  a  modelling  study  in  which  they  estimate  the  number  of  excess  deaths  from  HIV,  tuberculosis,  and  malaria  that  could  plausibly  occur   as   a   consequence   of   the   COVID-19   pandemic.  

Patterns of pesticide usage in agriculture in rural Tanzania call for integrating agricultural and public health practices in managing insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors

July 20, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nancy S. Matowo, Marcel Tanner, Givemore Munhenga, Salum A. Mapua, Marceline Finda, Jürg Utzinger, Vera Ngowi and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:257, 16 July 2020

Unrestricted use of pesticides in agriculture is likely to increase insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, strategies for managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and public health sectors lack integration. This study explored the types and usage of agricultural pesticides, and awareness and management practices among retailers and farmers in Ulanga and Kilombero districts in south-eastern Tanzania, where Anopheles mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids.

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