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Modelling the relationship between malaria prevalence as a measure of transmission and mortality across age groups

July 23, 2019 - 15:32 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sammy Khagayi, Meghna Desai, Penelope Vounatsou, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:247, 23 July 2019

Parasite prevalence has been used widely as a measure of malaria transmission, especially in malaria endemic areas. However, its contribution and relationship to malaria mortality across different age groups has not been well investigated. Previous studies in a health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) platform in western Kenya quantified the contribution of incidence and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) to mortality. The study assessed the relationship between outcomes of malaria parasitaemia surveys and mortality across age groups.

Multiplex serology demonstrate cumulative prevalence and spatial distribution of malaria in Ethiopia

July 23, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ashenafi Assefa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Jimee Hwang, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:246, 22 July 2019

Measures of malaria burden using microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in cross-sectional household surveys may incompletely describe the burden of malaria in low-transmission settings. This study describes the pattern of malaria transmission in Ethiopia using serological antibody estimates derived from a nationwide household survey completed in 2015.

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Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 23, 2019 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD012656

This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

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What is community engagement and how can it drive malaria elimination? Case studies and stakeholder interviews

July 21, 2019 - 21:50 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Kimberly Baltzell, Kelly Harvard, Marguerite Hanley, Roly Gosling and Ingrid Chen
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:245, 17 July 2019

In light of increasing complexity of identifying and treating malaria cases in low transmission settings, operational solutions are needed to increase effective delivery of interventions. Community engagement (CE) is at the forefront of this conversation given the shift toward creating local and site-specific solutions. Malaria programmes often confuse CE with providing information to the community or implementing community-based interventions. This study seeks to expand on CE approaches for malaria by looking to a variety of health and development programmes for lessons that can be applied to malaria elimination.

Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

July 21, 2019 - 21:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:243, 17 July 2019

Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.

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Prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection in immigrants living in Spain

July 21, 2019 - 21:43 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Isabel Fradejas, José Miguel Rubio, Ana Pérez‑Ayala, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:242, 17 July 2019

The importance of submicroscopic malaria infections in high-transmission areas could contribute to maintain the parasite cycle. Regarding non-endemic areas, its importance remains barely understood because parasitaemia in these afebrile patients is usually below the detection limits for microscopy, hence molecular techniques are often needed for its diagnosis. In addition to this, the lack of standardized protocols for the screening of submicroscopic malaria in immigrants from endemic areas may underestimate the infection with Plasmodium spp. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria in afebrile immigrants living in a non-endemic area.

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Spatiotemporal epidemiology, environmental correlates, and demography of malaria in Tak Province, Thailand (2012–2015)

July 21, 2019 - 21:36 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Chris Erwin G. Mercado, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Richard J. Maude, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:240, 16 July 2019

Tak Province, at the Thai–Myanmar border, is one of three high malaria incidence areas in Thailand. This study aimed to describe and identify possible factors driving the spatiotemporal trends of disease incidence from 2012 to 2015.

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“We were afraid of the lion that has roared next to us”; community response to reactive focal mass drug administration for malaria in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)

July 21, 2019 - 21:34 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Kimberly A. Baltzell, Alysse Maglior, Michelle S. Hsiang, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:238, 15 July 2019

Reactive focal mass drug administration (rfMDA), or presumptive treatment without malaria testing of household members and neighbours of a passively identified malaria case, is currently being explored as a possible malaria elimination strategy in low transmission settings. One of the primary factors determining the effectiveness of rfMDA on reducing or interrupting transmission is achieving high coverage of the target population with drug administration. This study aims to explore the acceptability of rfMDA and identify facilitators and barriers to its potential implementation, as well as the community’s general knowledge, attitudes and beliefs with regard to malaria elimination.

Anopheles mosquito surveillance in Madagascar reveals multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium infection

July 16, 2019 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Riley E. Tedrow, Tovonahary Rakotomanga, Thiery Nepomichene, Rosalind E. Howes, Jocelyn Ratovonjato, Arséne C. Ratsimbasoa, Gavin J. Svenson, Peter A. Zimmerman
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(7): e0007176

The Madagascar National Strategic Plan for Malaria Control 2018 (NSP) outlines malaria control pre-elimination strategies that include detailed goals for mosquito control. Primary surveillance protocols and mosquito control interventions focus on indoor vectors of malaria, while many potential vectors feed and rest outdoors. Here we describe the application of tools that advance our understanding of diversity, host choice, and Plasmodium infection in the Anopheline mosquitoes of the Western Highland Fringe of Madagascar.

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