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Modelling reactive case detection strategies for interrupting transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

August 5, 2019 - 16:20 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Theresa Reiker, Nakul Chitnis and Thomas Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:259, 30 July 2019

As areas move closer to malaria elimination, a combination of limited resources and increasing heterogeneity in case distribution and transmission favour a shift to targeted reactive interventions. Reactive case detection (RCD), the following up of additional individuals surrounding an index case, has the potential to target transmission pockets and identify asymptomatic cases in them. Current RCD implementation strategies vary, and it is unclear which are most effective in achieving elimination.

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Examination of malaria service utilization and service provision: an analysis of DHS and SPA data from Malawi, Senegal, and Tanzania

July 30, 2019 - 08:39 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Cameron Taylor, Annē Linn, Wenjuan Wang, Lia Florey and Hamdy Moussa
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:258, 29 July 2019

Ensuring universal access to malaria diagnosis and treatment is a key component of Pillar 1 of the World Health Organization Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030. To achieve this goal it is essential to know the types of facilities where the population seeks care as well as the malaria service readiness of these facilities in endemic countries.

Anopheles parensis contributes to residual malaria transmission in South Africa

July 30, 2019 - 08:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashley Burke, Yael Dahan-Moss, Frances Duncan, Bheki Qwabe, Maureen Coetzee, Lizette Koekemoer and Basil Brooke
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:257, 29 July 2019

Understanding the contribution of outdoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes to residual malaria transmission is important in terms of scaling up vector control towards malaria elimination in South Africa. The aim of this project was to assess the potential role of Anopheles parensis and other Anopheles species in residual malaria transmission, using sentinel surveillance sites in the uMkhanyakude District of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province.

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Technical and operational underpinnings of malaria elimination from Sri Lanka

July 30, 2019 - 08:35 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Risintha Premaratne, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Dewanee Ranaweera, W. M. Kumudu T. de A. W. Gunasekera, Mihirini Hevawitharana, Lalanthika Pieris, Deepika Fernando and Kamini Mendis
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:256, 29 July 2019

Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2012, and the country received WHO-certification in 2016.

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Community-based intermittent mass testing and treatment for malaria in an area of high transmission intensity, western Kenya: development of study site infrastructure and lessons learned

July 30, 2019 - 08:25 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Norbert Awino Odero, Aaron M. Samuels, Meghna Desai, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:255, 29 July 2019

Malaria transmission is high in western Kenya and the asymptomatic infected population plays a significant role in driving the transmission. Mathematical modelling and simulation programs suggest that interventions targeting asymptomatic infections through mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA) have the potential to reduce malaria transmission when combined with existing interventions.

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Systematic review of analytical methods applied to longitudinal studies of malaria

July 30, 2019 - 08:24 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Christopher C. Stanley, Lawrence N. Kazembe, Mavuto Mukaka, Kennedy N. Otwombe, Andrea G. Buchwald, Michael G. Hudgens, Don P. Mathanga, Miriam K. Laufer and Tobias F. Chirwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:254, 29 July 2019

Modelling risk of malaria in longitudinal studies is common, because individuals are at risk for repeated infections over time. Malaria infections result in acquired immunity to clinical malaria disease. Prospective cohorts are an ideal design to relate the historical exposure to infection and development of clinical malaria over time, and analysis methods should consider the longitudinal nature of the data. Models must take into account the acquisition of immunity to disease that increases with each infection and the heterogeneous exposure to bites from infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Methods that fail to capture these important factors in malaria risk will not accurately model risk of malaria infection or disease.

Proof of concept: used malaria rapid diagnostic tests applied for parallel sequencing for surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau during 2014–2017

July 30, 2019 - 08:04 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sidsel Nag, Johan Ursing, Amabelia Rodrigues, Marina Crespo, Camilla Krogsgaard, Ole Lund, Frank M. Aarestrup, Michael Alifrangis and PouL-Erik Kofoed
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Malaria Journal 2019 18:252, 26 July 2019

Large-scale surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance is an attractive method of resistance monitoring, to complement therapeutic efcacy studies in settings where the latter are logistically challenging.

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Factors associated with uptake of optimal doses of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women in Uganda: analysis of data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, 2016

July 29, 2019 - 15:54 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Denis Okethwangu, Jimmy Opigo, Stella Atugonza, Catherine T. Kizza, Monica Nabatanzi, Claire Biribawa, Daniel Kyabayinze and Alex R. Ario
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:250, 26 July 2019

The Uganda National Malaria Control Programme recognizes the importance of minimizing the effect of malaria among pregnant women. Accordingly, strategies including intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) have been scaled up. Uptake of IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Uganda, aged 15–49 years who had had a live birth 2 years preceding the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) was determined and factors associated with the uptake of optimal IPTp-SP doses were identified.

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Status of insecticide resistance and its biochemical and molecular mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Afghanistan

July 29, 2019 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noor Halim Zahid Safi, Abdul Ali Ahmadi, Sami Nahzat, Supriya Warusavithana, Naimullah Safi, Reza Valadan, Atie Shemshadian, Marzieh Sharifi, Ahmadali Enayati and Janet Hemingway
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:249, 26 July 2019

Insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in eastern Afghanistan, has been reported previously. This study describes the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance to facilitate effective vector control and insecticide resistance management.

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Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa

July 29, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Janetta E. Skarp, Thomas S. Churcher, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 23, 2019 116 (30) 15086-15095

The antimalarial efficacy of the most important vector control interventions—long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)—primarily protect against mosquitoes’ biting people when they are in bed and indoors.

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