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Not Open Access | Understanding vaccine-elicited protective immunity against pre-erythrocytic stage malaria in endemic regions

October 21, 2020 - 08:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mo AXY, Pesce J, Augustine AD, Bodmer JL, Breen J, Leitner W, Hall BF
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 Oct 15:S0264-410X(20)31253-6

Recent malaria vaccine trials in endemic areas have yielded disparate results compared to studies conducted in non-endemic areas. A workshop was organized to discuss the differential pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine (Pre-E-Vac) efficacies and underlying protective immunity under various conditions. It was concluded that many factors, including vaccine technology platforms, host genetics or physiologic conditions, and parasite and mosquito vector variations, may all contribute to Pre-E-Vac efficacy.

Species diversity and insecticide resistance within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand

October 21, 2020 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sumarnrote A, Overgaard HJ, Corbel V, Thanispong K, Chareonviriyaphap T, Manguin S
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 17;13(1):525

Members of the Anopheles hyrcanus group have been incriminated as important malaria vectors. This study aims to identify the species and explore the insecticide susceptibility profile within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand where increasing numbers of malaria cases were reported in 2014.

Not Open Access | Messenger students' engagement scale: Community perspectives on school-based malaria education in Ethiopia

October 21, 2020 - 08:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kebede Y, Alemayehu G, Abebe L, Sudhakar M, Birhanu Z
Reference: 
Health Soc Care Community. 2020 Oct 17

A two-year school-based malaria education intervention was developed to engage students as implementers in malaria prevention and control in the Oromia region, Ethiopia. The current study aimed to validate messenger students' engagement scale (MSES) in malaria education. The scale development process was done stepwise. Multiple behavioural theories were examined to derive possible domains of engagement.

First report of Anopheles (Cellia) multicolor during a study of tolerance to salinity of Anopheles arabiensis larvae in Nouakchott, Mauritania

October 21, 2020 - 08:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ould Lemrabott MA, Le Goff G, Kengne P, Ndiaye O, Costantini C, Mint Lekweiry K, Ould Ahmedou Salem MS, Robert V, Basco L, Simard F, Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary A
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 16;13(1):522

Anopheles multicolor is known to be present in the arid areas of Africa north of the Sahara Desert, especially in oases. To date, its presence in Mauritania has not been reported. Here, we present the first record of its presence in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. The larvae of An. multicolor, together with those of An. arabiensis, the major malaria vector in the city, were found thriving in highly saline surface water collections.

NOT Open Access | HRP2/3 Mutation in Recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Case Acquired in Ethiopia

October 21, 2020 - 08:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gefen-Halevi S, Belinson V, Manor U, Gazit Z, Smollan G, Belausov N, Biber A, Schwartz E, Grossman T, Leshem E, Amit S
Reference: 
J Travel Med. 2020 Oct 15:taaa196

A 65-year-old Israeli working in Welkait, Ethiopia, not using malaria prophylaxis, developed fever. Malaria RDT was consistent with non-falciparum malaria (plasmodium LDH+/HRP-) but microscopy showed typical P. falciparum.

Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) is found where few are looking: assessing mosquito diversity and density outside inhabited areas using diverse sampling methods

October 21, 2020 - 08:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Epopa PS, Millogo AA, Collins CM, North AR, Benedict MQ, Tripet F, OʼLoughlin S, Dabiré RK, Ouédraogo GA, Diabaté A
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 15;13(1):516

One of the promising current approaches to curb malaria lies in genetic vector control, the implementation of which will require an improved understanding of the movement of genetic constructs among mosquito populations. To predict potential gene flow from one area to another, it is important to begin to understand mosquito dynamics outside of the commonly-sampled village areas, and thus how genes may move between villages. This study assessed the presence and relative abundance of mosquitoes in a 6-km corridor between two villages in western Burkina Faso.

SNP barcodes provide higher resolution than microsatellite markers to measure Plasmodium vivax population genetics

October 20, 2020 - 16:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abebe A. Fola, Eline Kattenberg, Zahra Razook, Dulcie Lautu-Gumal, Stuart Lee, Somya Mehra, Melanie Bahlo, James Kazura, Leanne J. Robinson, Moses Laman, Ivo Mueller and Alyssa E. Barry
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:375, 20 October 2020

Genomic surveillance of malaria parasite populations has the potential to inform control strategies and to monitor the impact of interventions. Barcodes comprising large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are accurate and efficient genotyping tools, however may need to be tailored to specific malaria transmission settings, since ‘universal’ barcodes can lack resolution at the local scale. A SNP barcode was developed that captures the diversity and structure of Plasmodium vivax populations of Papua New Guinea (PNG) for research and surveillance.

Global estimation of anti-malarial drug effectiveness for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 1991–2019

October 20, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Giulia Rathmes, Susan F. Rumisha, Daniel J. Weiss, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:374, 20 October 2020

Anti-malarial drugs play a critical role in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, but their role is mediated by their effectiveness. Effectiveness is defined as the probability that an anti-malarial drug will successfully treat an individual infected with malaria parasites under routine health care delivery system. Anti-malarial drug effectiveness (AmE) is influenced by drug resistance, drug quality, health system quality, and patient adherence to drug use; its influence on malaria burden varies through space and time.

Protective effects of Olyset® Net on Plasmodium falciparum infection after three years of distribution in western Kenya

October 20, 2020 - 16:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noriko Tamari, Noboru Minakawa, George O. Sonye, Beatrice Awuor, James O. Kongere, Muneaki Hashimoto, Masatoshi Kataoka and Stephen Munga
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:373, 19 October 2020

Several types of insecticides, treating technologies and materials are available for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). The variations may result in different efficacies against mosquitoes and correspondingly infection risks for the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. This cross-sectional study investigated whether infection risk varied among children who slept under different LLIN brands in rural villages of western Kenya.

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