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Targeting liver stage malaria with metformin

December 23, 2019 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vera IM, Grilo Ruivo MT, Lemos Rocha LF, Marques S, Bhatia SN, Mota MM, Mancio-Silva L
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2019; 4(24):e127441

Despite an unprecedented 2 decades of success, the combat against malaria — the mosquito-transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium parasites — is no longer progressing. Efforts toward eradication are threatened by the lack of an effective vaccine and a rise in antiparasite drug resistance. Alternative approaches are urgently needed. Repurposing of available, approved drugs with distinct modes of action are being considered as viable and immediate adjuncts to standard antimicrobial treatment.

Characterizing the Spatial Determinants and Prevention of Malaria in Kenya

December 23, 2019 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gopal S, Ma Y, Xin C, Pitts J, Were L
Reference: 
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5078

The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 3 is to ensure health and well-being for all at all ages with a specific target to end malaria by 2030. Aligned with this goal, the primary objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of utilizing local spatial variations to uncover the statistical relationships between malaria incidence rate and environmental and behavioral factors across the counties of Kenya.

NOT Open Access | Innate immunity to malaria-The role of monocytes

December 23, 2019 - 14:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dobbs KR, Crabtree JN, Dent AE
Reference: 
Immunol Rev. 2019 Dec 16

Monocytes are innate immune cells essential for host protection against malaria. Upon activation, monocytes function to help reduce parasite burden through phagocytosis, cytokine production, and antigen presentation. However, monocytes have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe disease through production of damaging inflammatory cytokines, resulting in systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction.

Malaria in North-East India: Importance and Implications in the Era of Elimination

December 23, 2019 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sarma DK, Mohapatra PK, Bhattacharyya DR, Chellappan S, Karuppusamy B, Barman K, Senthil Kumar N, Dash AP, Prakash A, Balabaskaran Nina P
Reference: 
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 673

Worldwide and in India, malaria elimination efforts are being ramped up to eradicate the disease by 2030. Malaria elimination efforts in North-East (NE) India will have a great bearing on the overall efforts to eradicate malaria in the rest of India. The first cases of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance were reported in NE India, and the source of these drug resistant parasites are most likely from South East Asia (SEA).

Not Open Access | A Robust Estimator of Malaria Incidence from Routine Health Facility Data

December 23, 2019 - 14:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Thwing J, Camara A, Candrinho B, Zulliger R, Colborn J, Painter J, Plucinski MM
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Dec 12.

Routine incident malaria case data have become a pillar of malaria surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. These data provide granular, timely information to track malaria burden. However, incidence data are sensitive to changes in care seeking rates, rates of testing of suspect cases, and reporting completeness. Based on a set of assumptions, we derived a simple algebraic formula to convert crude incidence rates to a corrected estimation of incidence, adjusting for biases in variable and suboptimal rates of care seeking, testing of suspect cases, and reporting completeness.

NOT Open Access | Artemether-lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Retain High Efficacy for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Myanmar

December 23, 2019 - 14:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Han KT, Lin K, Nyunt MM, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Dec 12

The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion threatens both the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), the first-line treatment for malaria, and prospects for malaria elimination. Monitoring of ACT efficacy is essential for ensuring timely updates to elimination policies and treatment recommendations. In 2014–2015, we assessed the therapeutic efficacies of artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum at three study sites in Rakhine, Shan, and Kachin states in Myanmar.

Monitoring of efficacy, tolerability and safety of artemether–lumefantrine and artesunate–amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Lambaréné, Gabon: an open-label clinical trial

December 17, 2019 - 16:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bayode R. Adegbite, Jean R. Edoa, Ayola A. Adegnika, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:424, 16 December 2019

Malaria remains a major public health problem, affecting mainly low-and middle-income countries. The management of this parasitic disease is challenged by ever increasing drug resistance. This study, investigated the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability and safety of artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate–amodiaquine (AS–AQ), used as first-line drugs to treat uncomplicated malaria in Lambaréné, Gabon.

How far is the journey before malaria is knocked out of Zimbabwe? (or Africa): a commentary

December 17, 2019 - 16:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Clive Shiff
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:423, 16 December 2019

Recent publications and statements have drawn attention to a sustainable system of managing malaria control interventions globally but especially on the Continent of Africa. Arbitrary and unstable governments often interfere with health programmes, causing upsurges in malaria transmission as well as other health issues. A well-run health infrastructure will deal with public health as a whole.

Producing routine malaria data: an exploration of the micro-practices and processes shaping routine malaria data quality in frontline health facilities in Kenya

December 17, 2019 - 16:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
George Okello, Sassy Molyneux, Scholastica Zakayo, Rene Gerrets and Caroline Jones
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:420, 16 December 2019

Routine health information systems can provide near real-time data for malaria programme management, monitoring and evaluation, and surveillance. There are widespread concerns about the quality of the malaria data generated through routine information systems in many low-income countries. However, there has been little careful examination of micro-level practices of data collection which are central to the production of routine malaria data.

Artenimol–piperaquine in children with uncomplicated imported falciparum malaria: experience from a prospective cohort

December 17, 2019 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lauren Pull, Jean-Marc Lupoglazoff, Matthew Beardmore, Jean-François Michel, Pierre Buffet, Olivier Bouchaud and Jean-Yves Siriez
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:419, 16 December 2019

Although malaria remains one of the major public health threats in inter-tropical areas, there is limited understanding of imported malaria in children by paediatricians and emergency practitioners in non-endemic countries, often resulting in misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. Moreover, classical treatments (atovaquone-proguanil, quinine, mefloquine) are limited either by lengthy treatment courses or by side effects. Since 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of oral artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. The benefits of artenimol–piperaquine in children have been validated in endemic countries but experience remains limited in cases of imported malaria.

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