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malaria

Not Open Access | Teratogen update: Malaria in pregnancy and the use of antimalarial drugs in the first trimester

October 21, 2020 - 09:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Clark RL
Reference: 
Birth Defects Res. 2020 Oct 20

Malaria is a particular problem in pregnancy because of enhanced sensitivity, the possibility of placental malaria, and adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. Artemisinin-containing combination therapies (ACTs) are the most effective antimalarials known. WHO recommends 7-day quinine therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the first trimester despite the superior tolerability and efficacy of 3-day ACT regimens because artemisinins caused embryolethality and/or cardiovascular malformations at relatively low doses in rats, rabbits, and monkeys.

NOT Open Access | Field Evaluation of a Spatial Repellent Emanation Vest for Personal Protection Against Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes

October 21, 2020 - 09:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sukkanon C, Tisgratog R, Muenworn V, Bangs MJ, Hii J, Chareonviriyaphap T
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Oct 20:tjaa213

Exophilic vectors are an important contributor to residual malaria transmission. Wearable spatial repellents (SR) can potentially provide personal protection in early evening hours before people retire indoors. An SR prototype for passive delivery of transfluthrin (TFT) for protecting humans against nocturnal mosquitoes in Kanchanaburi, western Thailand, is evaluated. A plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet (676 cm2) treated with 55-mg TFT (TFT-PET), attached to the back of short-sleeve vest worn by human collector, was evaluated under semifield and outdoor conditions.

NOT Open Access | Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Northern Zambia

October 21, 2020 - 09:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ippolito MM, Pringle JC, Thuma PE, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct 19

Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is a first-line agent for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The WHO recommends periodic therapeutic efficacy studies of antimalarial drugs for the detection of malaria parasite drug resistance and to inform national malaria treatment policies. We conducted a therapeutic efficacy study of AL in a high malaria transmission region of northern Zambia from December 2014 to July 2015.

NOT Open Access | The Impact of Renewing Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Nets in the Event of Malaria Resurgence: Lessons from 10 Years of Net Use in Dielmo, Senegal

October 21, 2020 - 09:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wotodjo AN, Doucoure S, Diagne N, Sarr FD, Parola P, Gaudart J, Sokhna C
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct 19

The occurrence of malaria resurgences could threaten progress toward elimination of the disease. This study investigated the impact of repeated renewal of long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) universal coverage on malaria resurgence over a period of 10 years of net implementation in Dielmo (Senegal). A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo between August 2007 and July 2018. In July 2008, LLINs were offered to all villagers through universal campaign distribution which was renewed in July 2011, August 2014, and May 2016. Malaria cases were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

NOT Open Access | Regioisomerization of antimalarial drug WR99210 explains the inactivity of a commercial stock

October 21, 2020 - 09:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Remcho TP, Guggilapu SD, Cruz P, Nardone GA, Heffernan G, O'Connor RD, Bewley CA, Wellems TE, Lane KD
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Oct 19:AAC.01385-20

WR99210, a former antimalarial drug candidate now widely used for the selection of Plasmodium transfectants, selectively targets the parasite dihydrofolate reductase thymidine synthase bifunctional enzyme (DHFR-TS) but not human DHFR, which is not fused with TS. Accordingly, WR99210 and plasmids expressing human dhfr have become valued tools for the genetic modification of parasites in the laboratory.

NOT Open Access | Lactic acid supplementation increases quantity and quality of gametocytes in Plasmodium falciparum culture

October 21, 2020 - 09:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
West R, Sullivan DJ
Reference: 
Infect Immun. 2020 Oct 19:IAI.00635-20

Malaria infection by Plasmodium falciparum continues to afflict millions of people worldwide, with transmission dependent upon mosquito ingestion of the parasite gametocyte stage. These sexually committed stages develop from the asexual stages, yet the factors behind this transition are not completely understood. Here we find that lactic acid increases gametocyte quantity and quality in P. falciparum culture.

The impact of delayed treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria on progression to severe malaria: A systematic review and a pooled multicentre individual-patient meta-analysis

October 21, 2020 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mousa A, Al-Taiar A, Okell LC, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Oct 19;17(10):e1003359

Delay in receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria (UM) is often reported to increase the risk of developing severe malaria (SM), but access to treatment remains low in most high-burden areas. Understanding the contribution of treatment delay on progression to severe disease is critical to determine how quickly patients need to receive treatment and to quantify the impact of widely implemented treatment interventions, such as ‘test-and-treat’ policies administered by community health workers (CHWs). We conducted a pooled individual-participant meta-analysis to estimate the association between treatment delay and presenting with SM.

Profiles of Plasmodium falciparum infections detected by microscopy through the first year of life in Kintampo a high transmission area of Ghana

October 21, 2020 - 08:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Botwe AK, Owusu-Agyei S, Asghar M, Hammar U, Oppong FB, Gyaase S, Dosoo D, Jakpa G, Boamah E, Twumasi MF, Osier F, Färnert A, Asante KP
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 19;15(10):e0240814

Although malaria mortality among children under five years of age is high, the characteristics of their infection patterns are not well described. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal sequence pattern of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the first year of life within a birth cohort in Kintampo, Ghana (N = 1855). Infants were monitored at home with monthly sampling and also at the clinic for any febrile illness between 2008 and 2011.

Effect of mass dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine administration in southern Mozambique on the carriage of molecular markers of antimalarial resistance

October 21, 2020 - 08:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gupta H, Galatas B, Mayor A, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 19;15(10):e0240174

Mass drug administration (MDA) can rapidly reduce the burden of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). However, concerns remain about its contribution to select for antimalarial drug resistance.

NOT Open Access | Understanding the structural insights of enzymatic conformations for adenylosuccinate lyase receptor in malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

October 21, 2020 - 08:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Al-Malki ES
Reference: 
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2020 Oct 18:1-8

The dreadful disease malaria is one among the infectious diseases that comes in third number after the tuberculosis and HIV. This disease is spread by female Anopheles mosquito and caused by the malarial parasite sp notably Plasmodium falciparum. In this, the organism has several enzymes for processing the infection and growth mechanism and among that, the adenylosuccinate lyase is an enzyme that plays a critical role in metabolism and cellular replication via its action in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway.

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