To assess the spatial distribution of TB and malaria incidence, as well as their spatial association with each other, regardless of environmental and socio‐economic factors commonly reported as determinants of both disease rates among the municipalities of Amazonas State, Brazil between 2012 and 2015.
Anopheles subpictus s.l. Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) is a malaria vector in South Asia, where insecticides are the mainstay for vector control interventions.
Malaria preventive measures, including long-lasting insecticide-treated bet nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and controlling mosquito breeding sites, are key measures to achieve malaria elimination. Still, compliance with these recommended measures remains a major challenge. By applying a novel and comprehensive model for determinants of malaria prevention behaviour, this study tests how individual perceptions influence the intentions to use malaria preventive measures and explores strategies that stimulate their consistent use.
Community-delivered models have been widely used to reduce the burden of malaria. This review aimed to explore different community-delivered models and their relative effectiveness in terms of coverage and malaria-metric outcomes in order to inform the design and implementation of Community Health Worker (CHW) programmes for malaria control and elimination.
New national malaria strategic plans (NMSPs) should build upon the achievements and challenges identified during the implementation of previous plans, but there is limited research on the transition process between NMSPs. This study aims to fill this gap through an assessment of NMSPs across sub-Saharan Africa.
Reactive case detection (RCD) is an integral part of many malaria control and elimination programmes and can be conceived of as a way of gradually decreasing transmission. However, it is unclear under what circumstances RCD may have a substantial impact on prevalence, how likely it is to lead to local elimination, or how effective it needs to be to prevent reintroduction after transmission has been interrupted.
In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Most impact prediction of malaria vector control interventions has been based on African vectors. Anopheles albimanus, the main vector in Central America and the Caribbean, has higher intrinsic mortality, is more zoophilic and less likely to rest indoors. Therefore, relative impact among interventions may be different. Prioritizing interventions, in particular for eliminating Plasmodium falciparum from Haiti, should consider local vector characteristics.
The Mindray BC-6800 haematology analyzer (BC-6800) provides a dedicated flag ‘Infected RBC’ (InR) and the number of InR (InR#)/the permillage of InR (InR‰) in routine blood testing as a screening tool for malaria in endemic areas. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the BC-6800 flag parameter for aiding the diagnosis of malaria.
Despite recent strides made towards reducing the emergence of artemisinin resistance, inappropriate dispensing practices for anti-malarials in both private and public sectors affect treatment outcomes negatively. In Ghana, private retail pharmacies are the most accessible health facilities for managing diseases of common occurrence. However, there is growing concern about the number of patients harmed by dispensing errors in the management of malaria in retail pharmacies. Although considerable work has been done in this area, several questions regarding dispensing practices remain unanswered. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the predictors of appropriate dispensing practices for anti-malarials in community pharmacies in the La Nkwantanang-Madina municipality of Greater Accra, Ghana.