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Malaria mosquitoes use leg push-off forces to control body pitch during take-off

January 7, 2020 - 14:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wouter G. van Veen, Johan L. van Leeuwen, Florian T. Muijres
Reference: 
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol. 2020 Jan;333(1):38-49

Escaping from a blood host with freshly acquired nutrition for her eggs is one of the most critical actions in the life of a female malaria mosquito. During this take‐off, she has to carry a large payload, up to three times her body weight, while avoiding tactile detection by the host. What separates the malaria mosquito from most other insects is that the mosquito pushes off gently with its legs while producing aerodynamic forces with its wings. Apart from generating the required forces, the malaria mosquito has to produce the correct torques to pitch‐up during take‐off.

NOT Open Access | Propensity Score Analysis of Artesunate Versus Quinine for Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in France

January 7, 2020 - 14:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
El Ket N, Kendjo E, Jauréguiberry S, et al.
Reference: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 2, 15 January 2020, Pages 280–287

Little is known on the use of artesunate compared with quinine for the treatment of imported malaria cases in nonendemic countries with a high level of care. Therefore, we compared the 2 treatments in terms of mortality and hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) discharge rates.

NOT Open Access | The economic burden of malaria in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

January 7, 2020 - 14:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Onyia VU, Ughasoro MD, Onwujekwe OE
Reference: 
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine Volume 33, 2020 - Issue 1, Pages 92-95

Malaria in pregnancy carries a proven huge health burden; however, the economic challenges have not been properly evaluated in Nigeria.

Antiplasmodial profile of selected compounds from Malaria Box: in vitro evaluation, speed of action and drug combination studies

January 6, 2020 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guilherme Eduardo de Souza, Renata Vieira Bueno, Juliana Oliveira de Souza, Camila Lima Zanini, Fábio Cardoso Cruz, Glaucius Oliva, Rafael Victório Carvalho Guido and Anna Caroline Campos Aguiar
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:447, 30 December 2019

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax parasites. Evidence of resistance to ACT has been reported in Cambodia, and without new and effective anti-malarial agents, malaria burden and mortality will rise.

Impact of vector control interventions on malaria transmission intensity, outdoor vector biting rates and Anopheles mosquito species composition in Tororo, Uganda

December 30, 2019 - 15:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alex K. Musiime, David L. Smith, James P. Egonyu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:445, 27 December 2019

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are widely recommended for the prevention of malaria in endemic regions. Data from human landing catches provide information on the impact of vector control on vector populations. Here, malaria transmission indoors and outdoors, before and after mass deployment of LLINs and IRS in Uganda was compared.

Characterising malaria connectivity using malaria indicator survey data

December 30, 2019 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carlos A. Guerra, Daniel T. Citron, Guillermo A. García and David L. Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:440, 23 December 2019

Malaria connectivity describes the flow of parasites among transmission sources and sinks within a given landscape. Because of the spatial and temporal scales at which parasites are transported by their hosts, malaria sub-populations are largely defined by mosquito movement and malaria connectivity among them is largely driven by human movement.

Doses of chloroquine in the treatment of malaria by Plasmodium vivax in patients between 2 and 14 years of age from the Brazilian Amazon basin

December 30, 2019 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Luann Wendel Pereira de Sena, Amanda Gabryelle Nunes Cardoso Mello, Michelle Valéria Dias Ferreira, Marcieni Andrade de Ataide, Rosa Maria Dias and José Luiz Fernandes Vieira
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:439, 21 December 2019

A total dose of chloroquine of 25 mg/kg is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to treat malaria by Plasmodium vivax. In several endemic areas, including the Brazilian Amazon basin, anti-malarial drugs are dispensed in small plastic bags at a dosing regimen based on age. This practice can lead to suboptimal dosing of the drug, which can impact treatment outcomes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the extent of sub-dosing of chloroquine in children and adolescents with vivax malaria using an age-based dose regimen, in addition to investigating the influence of age on the plasma concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine.

The 2019 Isdell:Flowers Cross Border Malaria Initiative Round Table: community engagement in the context of malaria elimination

December 30, 2019 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alexandra Gordon, Rebecca J. Vander Meulen and Alysse Maglior
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:432, 19 December 2019

Government officials, representatives from malaria endemic communities, and nonprofit, academic, and private sector partners convened at the 2019 Isdell:Flowers Cross Border Malaria Initiative Round Table in Livingstone, Zambia from February 28–March 1, 2019 to discuss the necessity of community engagement and the involvement of those directly affected by malaria in malaria elimination efforts.

Intracluster correlation coefficients in the Greater Mekong Subregion for sample size calculations of cluster randomized malaria trials

December 30, 2019 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pimnara Peerawaranun, Jordi Landier, Mavuto Mukaka, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:428, 18 December 2019

Sample size calculations for cluster randomized trials are a recognized methodological challenge for malaria research in pre-elimination settings. Positively correlated responses from the participants in the same cluster are a key feature in the estimated sample size required for a cluster randomized trial. The degree of correlation is measured by the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) where a higher coefficient suggests a closer correlation hence less heterogeneity within clusters but more heterogeneity between clusters.

Experimental population modification of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

December 24, 2019 - 17:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pham TB, Phong CH, Bennett JB, Hwang K, Jasinskiene N, Parker K, Stillinger D, Marshall JM, Carballar-Lejarazú R, James AA.
Reference: 
PLoS Genet 15(12): e1008440

Small laboratory cage trials of non-drive and gene-drive strains of the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, were used to investigate release ratios and other strain properties for their impact on transgene spread during simulated population modification. We evaluated the effects of transgenes on survival, male contributions to next-generation populations, female reproductive success and the impact of accumulation of gene drive-resistant genomic target sites resulting from nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) mutagenesis during Cas9, guide RNA-mediated cleavage.

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