Malaria is a particular problem in pregnancy because of enhanced sensitivity, the possibility of placental malaria, and adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. Artemisinin-containing combination therapies (ACTs) are the most effective antimalarials known. WHO recommends 7-day quinine therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the first trimester despite the superior tolerability and efficacy of 3-day ACT regimens because artemisinins caused embryolethality and/or cardiovascular malformations at relatively low doses in rats, rabbits, and monkeys.
Exophilic vectors are an important contributor to residual malaria transmission. Wearable spatial repellents (SR) can potentially provide personal protection in early evening hours before people retire indoors. An SR prototype for passive delivery of transfluthrin (TFT) for protecting humans against nocturnal mosquitoes in Kanchanaburi, western Thailand, is evaluated. A plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet (676 cm2) treated with 55-mg TFT (TFT-PET), attached to the back of short-sleeve vest worn by human collector, was evaluated under semifield and outdoor conditions.
Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is a first-line agent for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The WHO recommends periodic therapeutic efficacy studies of antimalarial drugs for the detection of malaria parasite drug resistance and to inform national malaria treatment policies. We conducted a therapeutic efficacy study of AL in a high malaria transmission region of northern Zambia from December 2014 to July 2015.
The occurrence of malaria resurgences could threaten progress toward elimination of the disease. This study investigated the impact of repeated renewal of long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) universal coverage on malaria resurgence over a period of 10 years of net implementation in Dielmo (Senegal). A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo between August 2007 and July 2018. In July 2008, LLINs were offered to all villagers through universal campaign distribution which was renewed in July 2011, August 2014, and May 2016. Malaria cases were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy.
WR99210, a former antimalarial drug candidate now widely used for the selection of Plasmodium transfectants, selectively targets the parasite dihydrofolate reductase thymidine synthase bifunctional enzyme (DHFR-TS) but not human DHFR, which is not fused with TS. Accordingly, WR99210 and plasmids expressing human dhfr have become valued tools for the genetic modification of parasites in the laboratory.
Malaria infection by Plasmodium falciparum continues to afflict millions of people worldwide, with transmission dependent upon mosquito ingestion of the parasite gametocyte stage. These sexually committed stages develop from the asexual stages, yet the factors behind this transition are not completely understood. Here we find that lactic acid increases gametocyte quantity and quality in P. falciparum culture.
Delay in receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria (UM) is often reported to increase the risk of developing severe malaria (SM), but access to treatment remains low in most high-burden areas. Understanding the contribution of treatment delay on progression to severe disease is critical to determine how quickly patients need to receive treatment and to quantify the impact of widely implemented treatment interventions, such as ‘test-and-treat’ policies administered by community health workers (CHWs). We conducted a pooled individual-participant meta-analysis to estimate the association between treatment delay and presenting with SM.
Although malaria mortality among children under five years of age is high, the characteristics of their infection patterns are not well described. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal sequence pattern of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the first year of life within a birth cohort in Kintampo, Ghana (N = 1855). Infants were monitored at home with monthly sampling and also at the clinic for any febrile illness between 2008 and 2011.
Mass drug administration (MDA) can rapidly reduce the burden of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). However, concerns remain about its contribution to select for antimalarial drug resistance.
The dreadful disease malaria is one among the infectious diseases that comes in third number after the tuberculosis and HIV. This disease is spread by female Anopheles mosquito and caused by the malarial parasite sp notably Plasmodium falciparum. In this, the organism has several enzymes for processing the infection and growth mechanism and among that, the adenylosuccinate lyase is an enzyme that plays a critical role in metabolism and cellular replication via its action in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway.