A model is developed of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) transmission in vector (Anopheles gambiae) and human populations that include the capacity for both clinical and parasite suppressing immunity. This model is coupled with a population model for Anopheles gambiae that varies seasonal with temperature and larval habitat availability. At steady state, the model clearly distinguishes uns hypoendemic transmission patterns from stable hyperendemic and holoendemic patterns of transmission.
About 25% of pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas are infected with malaria and this accounts for about 15% of maternal deaths globally. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is one of the main strategies for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. A new recommendation was made by the World Health Organization (WHO) that at least three doses of IPTp-SP should be administered before delivery. This study sought to determine the factors influencing adherence to the new IPTp-SP policy in Keta District, Volta region, Ghana.
Malaria parasites face dynamically changing environments and strong selective constraints within human and mosquito hosts. To survive such hostile and shifting conditions, Plasmodium switches transcriptional programs during development and has evolved mechanisms to adjust its phenotype through heterogeneous patterns of gene expression. In vitro studies on culture-adapted isolates have served to set the link between chromatin structure and functional gene expression.
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) constitute the primary means of bacterial recognition in insects. Recent work in the model organism Drosophila has revealed the mechanisms by which the complement of PGRPs refine the sensitivity of different tissues to bacterial elicitors, permitting the persistence of commensal bacteria in the gut whilst maintaining vigilance against bacterial infection.
Although malaria remains a noteworthy disease in South Africa, the provinces are at differing stages of the malaria elimination continuum. KwaZulu-Natal has consistently reported the lowest number of cases over the past 5 years and it is expected that the goal of elimination will be achieved in this province over the next few years. The study reports on few key indicators that realistically represents the provinces progress over the past decade. Local and imported morbidity and mortality is seen as the key indicator as is malaria in children under the age of five and pregnant women. The only vector control intervention in the province is indoor residual spraying (IRS) and this gives an estimate of the population protected by this intervention.
We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis of methanol extracts from the midguts of mosquitoes fed on an NPC1161B (434.15 m/z)-treated blood meal and identified a compound with a mass of 520.2 m/z, likely a conjugate of NPC1161B or an oxidized metabolite. These findings establish NPC1161B, and potentially its metabolites, as transmission-blocking candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum.
The investigation was carried out in children (n = 1081, age; 2–70 months) residing in a holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission region of western Kenya. At enrollment, genotypes/haplotypes (controlling for anemia-promoting covariates) did not reveal any strong effects on susceptibility to either malaria or SMA.
Here, we describe the molecular mechanism underlying this cross-species immunity. We identified an epitope in subdomain 1 (SD1) within the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of PvDBP that gives rise to cross-reactive antibodies to VAR2CSA and show that human antibodies affinity purified against a synthetic SD1 peptide block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in vitro.
These studies demonstrate the proof of concept of artemisinin therapeutic potential to improve survival in vitro of BMSCs exposed to ROS-induced apoptosis and suggest that artemisinin-mediated protection occurs via the activation of c-Raf-Erk1/2-p90rsk-CREB signaling pathway.