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NOT Open Access | A Malaria Transmission Model Predicts Holoendemic, Hyperendemic, and Hypoendemic Transmission Patterns Under Varied Seasonal Vector Dynamics

November 27, 2019 - 15:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ratti V, Wallace DI
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz186

A model is developed of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) transmission in vector (Anopheles gambiae) and human populations that include the capacity for both clinical and parasite suppressing immunity. This model is coupled with a population model for Anopheles gambiae that varies seasonal with temperature and larval habitat availability. At steady state, the model clearly distinguishes uns hypoendemic transmission patterns from stable hyperendemic and holoendemic patterns of transmission.

Factors influencing adherence to the new intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy policy in Keta District of the Volta region, Ghana

November 26, 2019 - 20:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alren O. Vandy, Nana Yaw Peprah, Joseph Yaw Jerela, Perfect Titiati, Abubakar Manu, Joseph Akamah, Ernest T. Maya & Kwasi Torpey
Reference: 
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth volume 19, Article number: 424 (2019)

About 25% of pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas are infected with malaria and this accounts for about 15% of maternal deaths globally. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is one of the main strategies for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. A new recommendation was made by the World Health Organization (WHO) that at least three doses of IPTp-SP should be administered before delivery. This study sought to determine the factors influencing adherence to the new IPTp-SP policy in Keta District, Volta region, Ghana.

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Not Open Access | The second life of Plasmodium in the mosquito host: gene regulation on the move

November 26, 2019 - 18:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
José L Ruiz, Elena Gómez-Díaz
Reference: 
Briefings in Functional Genomics, Volume 18, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 313–357

Malaria parasites face dynamically changing environments and strong selective constraints within human and mosquito hosts. To survive such hostile and shifting conditions, Plasmodium switches transcriptional programs during development and has evolved mechanisms to adjust its phenotype through heterogeneous patterns of gene expression. In vitro studies on culture-adapted isolates have served to set the link between chromatin structure and functional gene expression.

NOT Open Access | Atovaquone/proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis - Could a difference in susceptibility during hepatic development explain the need to continue drug intake for 7 days post-exposure?

November 26, 2019 - 13:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanscheid T, Schlagenhauf P, Grobusch MP.
Reference: 
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 21 November 2019, 101527

No abstract available

NOT Open Access | Functional analysis of the three major PGRPLC isoforms in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

November 26, 2019 - 13:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rodgers FH, Cai JA, Pitaluga AN, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Gendrin M, Christophides GK
Reference: 
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 21 November 2019, 103288

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) constitute the primary means of bacterial recognition in insects. Recent work in the model organism Drosophila has revealed the mechanisms by which the complement of PGRPs refine the sensitivity of different tissues to bacterial elicitors, permitting the persistence of commensal bacteria in the gut whilst maintaining vigilance against bacterial infection.

Decadal epidemiology of malaria in KwaZulu-Natal, a province in South Africa targeting elimination

November 26, 2019 - 13:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rajendra Maharaj, Ishen Seocharan, Bheki Qwabe, Moses Mkhabela, Sunitha Kissoon and Vishan Lakan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18: 368, 20 November 2019

Although malaria remains a noteworthy disease in South Africa, the provinces are at differing stages of the malaria elimination continuum. KwaZulu-Natal has consistently reported the lowest number of cases over the past 5 years and it is expected that the goal of elimination will be achieved in this province over the next few years. The study reports on few key indicators that realistically represents the provinces progress over the past decade. Local and imported morbidity and mortality is seen as the key indicator as is malaria in children under the age of five and pregnant women. The only vector control intervention in the province is indoor residual spraying (IRS) and this gives an estimate of the population protected by this intervention.

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NPC1161B, an 8-Aminoquinoline Analog, Is Metabolized in the Mosquito and Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Oocyst Maturation

November 19, 2019 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamerly T, Tweedell RE, Hritzo B, Nyasembe VO, Tekwani BL, Nanayakkara NP, Walker LA, Dinglasan R
Reference: 
Front Pharmacol. 2019 Oct 25;10:1265.

We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis of methanol extracts from the midguts of mosquitoes fed on an NPC1161B (434.15 m/z)-treated blood meal and identified a compound with a mass of 520.2 m/z, likely a conjugate of NPC1161B or an oxidized metabolite. These findings establish NPC1161B, and potentially its metabolites, as transmission-blocking candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum.

Not Open Access | Cyclooxygenase-2 haplotypes influence the longitudinal risk of malaria and severe malarial anemia in Kenyan children from a holoendemic transmission region

November 19, 2019 - 15:08 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Samuel B. Anyona, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Douglas J. Perkins, et al.
Reference: 
Journal of Human Genetics (2019)

The investigation was carried out in children (n = 1081, age; 2–70 months) residing in a holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission region of western Kenya. At enrollment, genotypes/haplotypes (controlling for anemia-promoting covariates) did not reveal any strong effects on susceptibility to either malaria or SMA. 

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Antibodies to Cryptic Epitopes in Distant Homologues Underpin a Mechanism of Heterologous Immunity between Plasmodium vivax PvDBP and Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA

November 19, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Catherine J. Mitran, Angie Mena, Stephanie K. Yanow, et al.
Reference: 
American Society For Microbiology Volume 10 Issue 5 e02343-19

Here, we describe the molecular mechanism underlying this cross-species immunity. We identified an epitope in subdomain 1 (SD1) within the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of PvDBP that gives rise to cross-reactive antibodies to VAR2CSA and show that human antibodies affinity purified against a synthetic SD1 peptide block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in vitro. 

Protective mechanism of artemisinin on rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells against apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide via activation of c-Raf-Erk1/2-p90rsk-CREB pathway

November 19, 2019 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jiankang Fang, Xia Zhao, Shuai Li, Xingan Xing, Haitao Wang, Philip Lazarovici & Wenhua Zheng
Reference: 
Stem Cell Research & Therapy volume 10, Article number: 312 (2019)

These studies demonstrate the proof of concept of artemisinin therapeutic potential to improve survival in vitro of BMSCs exposed to ROS-induced apoptosis and suggest that artemisinin-mediated protection occurs via the activation of c-Raf-Erk1/2-p90rsk-CREB signaling pathway.

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