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Disrupted Iron Metabolism and Mortality during Co-infection with Malaria and an Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen

January 14, 2021 - 08:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dos Santos LI, Torres TA, Diniz SQ, Gonçalves R, Caballero-Flores G, Núñez G, Gazzinelli RT, Maloy KJ, Ribeiro do V Antonelli L
Reference: 
Cell Rep. 2021 Jan 12;34(2):108613

Individuals with malaria exhibit increased morbidity and mortality when infected with Gram-negative (Gr-) bacteria. To explore this experimentally, we performed co-infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular Gr- bacterial pathogen that infects the large intestine. While single infections are controlled effectively, co-infection results in enhanced virulence that is characterized by prolonged systemic bacterial persistence and high mortality.

Structural basis of malaria parasite phenylalanine tRNA-synthetase inhibition by bicyclic azetidines

January 14, 2021 - 08:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharma M, Malhotra N, Sharma A, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Jan 12;12(1):343

The inhibition of Plasmodium cytosolic phenylalanine tRNA-synthetase (cFRS) by a novel series of bicyclic azetidines has shown the potential to prevent malaria transmission, provide prophylaxis, and offer single-dose cure in animal models of malaria. To date, however, the molecular basis of Plasmodium cFRS inhibition by bicyclic azetidines has remained unknown.

Relationships between test positivity rate, total laboratory confirmed cases of malaria, and malaria incidence in high burden settings of Uganda: an ecological analysis

January 13, 2021 - 14:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jaffer Okiring, Adrienne Epstein, Grant Dorsey, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:42, 13 January 2021

Malaria surveillance is critical for monitoring changes in malaria morbidity over time. National Malaria Control Programmes often rely on surrogate measures of malaria incidence, including the test positivity rate (TPR) and total laboratory confirmed cases of malaria (TCM), to monitor trends in malaria morbidity. However, there are limited data on the accuracy of TPR and TCM for predicting temporal changes in malaria incidence, especially in high burden settings.

Atlantic Forest Malaria: A Review of More than 20 Years of Epidemiological Investigation

January 13, 2021 - 11:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buery JC, de Alencar FEC, Duarte AMRC, Loss AC, Vicente CR, Ferreira LM, Fux B, Medeiros MM, Cravo P, Arez AP, Cerutti Junior C
Reference: 
Microorganisms. 2021 Jan 8;9(1):E132

In the south and southeast regions of Brazil, cases of malaria occur outside the endemic Amazon region near the Atlantic Forest in some coastal states, where Plasmodium vivax is the recognized parasite. Characteristics of cases and vectors, especially Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, raise the hypothesis of a zoonosis with simians as reservoirs. The present review aims to report on investigations of the disease over a 23-year period. Two main sources have provided epidemiological data: the behavior of Anopheles vectors and the genetic and immunological aspects of Plasmodium spp. obtained from humans, Alouatta simians, and Anopheles spp. mosquitoes.

Predictors of malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity in a high burden area of Paletwa Township, Chin State in Western Myanmar

January 13, 2021 - 11:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aung PL, Soe MT, Oo TL, Khin A, Thi A, Zhao Y, Cao Y, Cui L, Kyaw MP, Parker DM.
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Jan 11;10(1):6

Despite major reductions in malaria burden across Myanmar, clusters of the disease continue to persist in specific subregions. This study aimed to assess the predictors of test positivity among people living in Paletwa Township of Chin State, an area of persistently high malaria burden.

Randomized trials of housing interventions to prevent malaria and Aedes-transmitted diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis

January 13, 2021 - 11:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kua KP, Lee SWH
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 8;16(1):e0244284

Mosquito-borne diseases remain a significant public health problem in tropical regions. Housing improvements such as screening of doors and windows may be effective in reducing disease transmission, but the impact remains unclear.

NOT Open Access | Structural vaccinology of malaria transmission-blocking vaccines

January 13, 2021 - 11:26 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Patel PN, Tolia NH
Reference: 
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Jan 11

The development of effective vaccines remains a major health priority to combat the global burden of malaria, a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) elicit antibodies that neutralize the sexual stages of the parasite in blood meals ingested by the Anopheles mosquito, interrupting parasite development in the vector host and preventing disease spread to other individuals.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium infection and drug cure for malaria vaccine development

January 13, 2021 - 11:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nevagi RJ, Good MF, Stanisic DI
Reference: 
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Jan 11

Despite decades of research into the development of a vaccine to combat the malaria parasite, a highly efficacious malaria vaccine is not yet available. Different whole parasite-based vaccine approaches, including deliberate Plasmodium infection and drug cure (IDC), have been evaluated in pre-clinical and early phase clinical trials.

Costs of continuing RTS,S/ASO1E malaria vaccination in the three malaria vaccine pilot implementation countries

January 13, 2021 - 11:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Baral R, Levin A, Muhib F, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 11;16(1):e0244995

The RTS,S/ASO1E malaria vaccine is being piloted in three countries—Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi—as part of a coordinated evaluation led by the World Health Organization, with support from global partners. This study estimates the costs of continuing malaria vaccination upon completion of the pilot evaluation to inform decision-making and planning around potential further use of the vaccine in pilot areas.

NOT Open ACcess | Malaria and encephalopathy in a heart transplant recipient: a case report in the context of multiorgan donation

January 13, 2021 - 10:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vernaza A, Pinilla-Monsalve G, Cañas F, Carrillo D, López JD, Flórez N, Gómez JE
Reference: 
Transpl Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 11:e13565

Malaria is an endemic infection in tropical circles. It can be transmitted from mosquitoes bite, but exceptional cases have been attributed to multiorgan transplantation.

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