Individuals with malaria exhibit increased morbidity and mortality when infected with Gram-negative (Gr-) bacteria. To explore this experimentally, we performed co-infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular Gr- bacterial pathogen that infects the large intestine. While single infections are controlled effectively, co-infection results in enhanced virulence that is characterized by prolonged systemic bacterial persistence and high mortality.
The inhibition of Plasmodium cytosolic phenylalanine tRNA-synthetase (cFRS) by a novel series of bicyclic azetidines has shown the potential to prevent malaria transmission, provide prophylaxis, and offer single-dose cure in animal models of malaria. To date, however, the molecular basis of Plasmodium cFRS inhibition by bicyclic azetidines has remained unknown.
Malaria surveillance is critical for monitoring changes in malaria morbidity over time. National Malaria Control Programmes often rely on surrogate measures of malaria incidence, including the test positivity rate (TPR) and total laboratory confirmed cases of malaria (TCM), to monitor trends in malaria morbidity. However, there are limited data on the accuracy of TPR and TCM for predicting temporal changes in malaria incidence, especially in high burden settings.
In the south and southeast regions of Brazil, cases of malaria occur outside the endemic Amazon region near the Atlantic Forest in some coastal states, where Plasmodium vivax is the recognized parasite. Characteristics of cases and vectors, especially Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, raise the hypothesis of a zoonosis with simians as reservoirs. The present review aims to report on investigations of the disease over a 23-year period. Two main sources have provided epidemiological data: the behavior of Anopheles vectors and the genetic and immunological aspects of Plasmodium spp. obtained from humans, Alouatta simians, and Anopheles spp. mosquitoes.
Despite major reductions in malaria burden across Myanmar, clusters of the disease continue to persist in specific subregions. This study aimed to assess the predictors of test positivity among people living in Paletwa Township of Chin State, an area of persistently high malaria burden.
Mosquito-borne diseases remain a significant public health problem in tropical regions. Housing improvements such as screening of doors and windows may be effective in reducing disease transmission, but the impact remains unclear.
The development of effective vaccines remains a major health priority to combat the global burden of malaria, a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) elicit antibodies that neutralize the sexual stages of the parasite in blood meals ingested by the Anopheles mosquito, interrupting parasite development in the vector host and preventing disease spread to other individuals.
Despite decades of research into the development of a vaccine to combat the malaria parasite, a highly efficacious malaria vaccine is not yet available. Different whole parasite-based vaccine approaches, including deliberate Plasmodium infection and drug cure (IDC), have been evaluated in pre-clinical and early phase clinical trials.
The RTS,S/ASO1E malaria vaccine is being piloted in three countries—Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi—as part of a coordinated evaluation led by the World Health Organization, with support from global partners. This study estimates the costs of continuing malaria vaccination upon completion of the pilot evaluation to inform decision-making and planning around potential further use of the vaccine in pilot areas.
Malaria is an endemic infection in tropical circles. It can be transmitted from mosquitoes bite, but exceptional cases have been attributed to multiorgan transplantation.