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Anopheles mosquito surveillance in Madagascar reveals multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium infection

July 16, 2019 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Riley E. Tedrow, Tovonahary Rakotomanga, Thiery Nepomichene, Rosalind E. Howes, Jocelyn Ratovonjato, Arséne C. Ratsimbasoa, Gavin J. Svenson, Peter A. Zimmerman
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(7): e0007176

The Madagascar National Strategic Plan for Malaria Control 2018 (NSP) outlines malaria control pre-elimination strategies that include detailed goals for mosquito control. Primary surveillance protocols and mosquito control interventions focus on indoor vectors of malaria, while many potential vectors feed and rest outdoors. Here we describe the application of tools that advance our understanding of diversity, host choice, and Plasmodium infection in the Anopheline mosquitoes of the Western Highland Fringe of Madagascar.

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Antigenic cartography of immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1)

July 16, 2019 - 16:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
James Tuju, Margaret J. Mackinnon, Britta C. Urban, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(7): e1007870

Naturally acquired clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum is partly mediated by antibodies directed at parasite-derived antigens expressed on the surface of red blood cells which mediate disease and are extremely diverse.

Enhanced Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Campylobacter jejuni Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Liposomes Containing Monophosphoryl Lipid A and QS-21

July 16, 2019 - 16:15 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Amritha Ramakrishnan, Nina M. Schumack, Renee M. Laird, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere May/June 2019 4:e00101-19

Campylobacter jejuni is among the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and efforts to develop protective measures against the pathogen are ongoing.

Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 16, 2019 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Systematic Review, 05 July 2019

Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax requires treatment of the blood‐stage infection and treatment of the hypnozoites that develop in the liver. This is a challenge to effective case management of P vivax malaria, as well as being a more general substantial impediment to malaria control. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a 14‐day drug course with primaquine, an 8‐aminoquinoline, at 0.25 mg/kg/day in most of the world (standard course), or 0.5 mg/kg/day in East Asia and Oceania (high‐standard course). This long treatment course can be difficult to complete, and primaquine can cause dangerous haemolysis in individuals with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, meaning that physicians may be reluctant to prescribe in areas where G6PD testing is not available. This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

Structures of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase in malaria parasites reveal a unique structural relay mechanism for activation

July 15, 2019 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Majida El Bakkouri, Imène Kouidmi, Raymond Hui, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14164-14173

The cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was identified >25 y ago; however, efforts to obtain a structure of the entire PKG enzyme or catalytic domain from any species have failed.

Monitoring and evaluation of intervals from onset of fever to diagnosis before “1-3-7” approach in malaria elimination: a retrospective study in Shanxi Province, China from 2013 to 2018

July 15, 2019 - 15:14 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ting Wang, Shui-Sen Zhou, Jun Feng, Myo Minn Oo, Jing Chen, Chang-Fu Yan, Yi Zhang and Ping Tie
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:235, 12 July 2019

China’s 1-3-7 approach was extensively implemented to monitor the timeframe of case reporting, case investigation and foci response in the malaria elimination. However, activities before diagnosis and reporting (before ‘1’) would counteract the efficiency of 1-3-7 approach but few data have evaluated this issue. This study aims to evaluate the timelines between onset of fever and diagnosis at healthcare facilities in Shanxi Province.

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A non-lethal malarial infection results in reduced drug metabolizing enzyme expression and drug clearance in mice

July 15, 2019 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sylvie M. Mimche, Choon-myung Lee, Edward T. Morgan, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:234, 12 July 2019

Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studies have shown reduced clearance of quinine, a treatment for Plasmodium infection, in individuals with malaria.

Targeting remaining pockets of malaria transmission in Kenya to hasten progress towards national elimination goals: an assessment of prevalence and risk factors in children from the Lake endemic region

July 15, 2019 - 15:10 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Ismail Mahat Bashir, Nancy Nyakoe and Marianne van der Sande
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:233, 12 July 2019

With an overall decline of malaria incidence, elimination of malaria is gradually becoming the next target for many of countries affected by the disease. In Kenya the national malaria control strategy is aiming to reach pre-elimination for most parts of the country. However, considerable heterogeneity in prevalence of the disease within the country and especially the remaining high prevalent region of the Lake endemic region is likely to slow progress towards this target. To achieve a sustained control and an eventual elimination, a clear understanding of drivers of ongoing malaria transmission in remaining hotspots is needed.

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Examining community perceptions of malaria to inform elimination efforts in Southern Mozambique: a qualitative study

July 12, 2019 - 16:35 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Harvie P. Portugaliza, Beatriz Galatas, Hoticha Nhantumbo, Helder Djive, Ilda Murato, Francisco Saúte, Pedro Aide, Christopher Pell and Khátia Munguambe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:232, 11 July 2019

In a background of renewed calls for malaria eradication, several endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are contemplating malaria elimination nationally or sub-nationally. In Mozambique, a strategy to eliminate malaria in the south is underway in the context of low endemicity levels and cross-border initiatives to eliminate malaria in South Africa and Eswatini. In this context, a demonstration project aiming to interrupt malaria transmission through mass antimalarial drug administrations and intensified vector control programmes accompanied by community engagement and standard case management was implemented in the Magude District. To ensure the necessary uptake of these interventions, formative qualitative research explored the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to malaria, its prevention and control. The current article describes the results of this study.

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