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Coverage, determinants of use and repurposing of long-lasting insecticidal nets two years after a mass distribution in Lihir Islands, Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study

August 4, 2021 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pere Millat-Martínez, Rebecca Gabong, Quique Bassat, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:336, 4 August 2021

Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is an essential component of malaria control programmes. Three-yearly mass distribution of LLINs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been successful in reducing infection transmission since 2009, but malaria prevalence ramped up from 2015 onwards. Although LLIN universal coverage is mostly achieved during these campaigns, it may not be related with net use over time. Uses given to LLINs and non-compliance of this strategy were evaluated.

Analysing the essential proteins set of Plasmodium falciparum PF3D7 for novel drug targets identification against malaria

August 4, 2021 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fawad Ali, Hira Wali, Saadia Jan, Asad Zia, Muneeba Aslam, Imtiaz Ahmad, Sahib Gul Afridi, Sulaiman Shams and Asifullah Khan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:335, 3 August 2021

Plasmodium falciparum is an obligate intracellular parasite of humans that causes malaria. Falciparum malaria is a major public health threat to human life responsible for high mortality. Currently, the risk of multi-drug resistance of P. falciparum is rapidly increasing. There is a need to address new anti-malarial therapeutics strategies to combat the drug-resistance threat.

Evaluation of direct costs associated with the management of clinical stage of malaria in children under five years old in Gabon

August 4, 2021 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gaëtan Moukoumbi Lipenguet, Edgard Brice Ngoungou, Euloge Ibinga, Jean Engohang-Ndong and Jérôme Wittwer
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:334, 30 July 2021

Malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in African countries. It is one of the leading causes of hospital visits and hospitalization in pediatric wards for children under 5 years old. Interestingly however, the economic burden of this disease remains unknown in these endemic countries including Gabon. The purpose of this study is to assess the direct hospital cost for the management of malaria in children under 5 years old at the Libreville University Hospital Centre (CHUL, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Libreville) in Gabon.

Insecticide-treated net ownership, utilization and knowledge of malaria in children residing in Batoke–Limbe, Mount Cameroon area: effect on malariometric and haematological indices

August 4, 2021 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rene Ning Teh, Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Derick Ndelle Meduke, Gillian Asoba Nkeudem, Samuel Takang Ojong, Exodus Akwa Teh and Helen Kuokuo Kimbi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:333, 29 July 2021

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are the most widely used interventions for malaria control in Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the ownership and utilization of ITNs and the knowledge of malaria and their effects on malariometric and haematological indices in children living in the Mount Cameroon area.

NOT Open Access | Molecular surveillance of malaria in the Central Highlands, Vietnam

August 4, 2021 - 16:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Võ TC, Lê HG, Kang JM, Naw H, Fan CK, Trinh NTM, Quang HH, Na BK
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Aug;83:102374

Vietnam achieved outstanding success against malaria in the last few decades. The mortality and morbidity of malaria in Vietnam have decreased remarkably in recent years, but malaria is still a major public health concern in the country, particularly in the Central Highlands region. In this study, molecular analyses of malaria parasites in the Central Highlands were performed to understand the population structure and genetic diversity of the parasites circulating in the region.

Meta-analysis of the prevalence of malaria associated with pregnancy in Colombia 2000-2020

August 4, 2021 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cardona-Arias JA, Carmona-Fonseca J
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 30;16(7):e0255028

Knowledge about malaria associated with pregnancy is scarce in Latin America, and in Colombia, little is known about the magnitude of this infection. A systematic review was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria associated with pregnancy (MAP) and each of its three forms: gestational (GM), placental (PM), and congenital (CM) tested using thick blood smear (TBS) and PCR. Also to compare the proportion of cases due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Colombia from the year 2000-2020.

Inhibitory compounds targeting Plasmodium falciparum Gyrase B

August 4, 2021 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pakosz Z, Lin TY, Michalczyk E, Nagano S, Heddle JG
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Aug 2:AAC0026721.

Malaria persists as a major health problem due to the spread of drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. DNA gyrase is a well-validated and extremely effective therapeutic target in bacteria, and it is also known to be present in the apicoplast of malarial species including Plasmodium falciparum. This raises the possibility that it could be a useful target for novel antimalarials.

Plasmodium falciparum transcription in different clinical presentations of malaria associates with circulation time of infected erythrocytes

August 4, 2021 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thomson-Luque R, Votborg-Novél L, Portugal S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4711

Following Plasmodium falciparum infection, individuals can remain asymptomatic, present with mild fever in uncomplicated malaria cases, or show one or more severe malaria symptoms. Several studies have investigated associations between parasite transcription and clinical severity, but no broad conclusions have yet been drawn. Here, we apply a series of bioinformatic approaches based on P. falciparum's tightly regulated transcriptional pattern during its ~48-hour intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) to publicly available transcriptomes of parasites obtained from malaria cases of differing clinical severity across multiple studies.

Parenteral artemisinins are associated with reduced mortality and neurologic deficits and improved long-term behavioral outcomes in children with severe malaria

August 4, 2021 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Conroy AL, Opoka RO, Bangirana P, Namazzi R, Okullo AE, Georgieff MK, Cusick S, Idro R, Ssenkusu JM, John CC
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2021 Jul 28;19(1):168

In 2011, the World Health Organization recommended injectable artesunate as the first-line therapy for severe malaria (SM) due to its superiority in reducing mortality compared to quinine. There are limited data on long-term clinical and neurobehavioral outcomes after artemisinin use for treatment of SM.

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Infections in a Semi-Arid Rural African Setting: Evidence of Reactive Case Detection in Northwestern Kenya

August 4, 2021 - 15:43 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Meredith HR, Wesolowski A, Obala AA, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd210256

In northwestern Kenya, Turkana County has been historically considered unsuitable for stable malaria transmission because of its unfavorable climate and predominantly semi-nomadic population; consequently, it is overlooked during malaria control planning. However, the area is changing, with substantial development, an upsurge in travel associated with resource extraction, and more populated settlements forming. Recently, numerous malaria outbreaks have highlighted the need to characterize malaria transmission and its associated risk factors in the region to inform control strategies.

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