Pvs48/45 is a Plasmodium vivax gametocyte surface protein involved in the parasite fertilization process. Previous studies showed that Pvs48/45 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were highly immunoreactive with sera from malaria-endemic areas and highly immunogenic in animal models. Here the immunogenicity in mice of three different vaccine formulations was compared.
There is a clear need for novel approaches to malaria vaccine development. We aimed to develop a genetically attenuated blood-stage vaccine and test its safety, infectivity, and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers. Our approach was to target the gene encoding the knob-associated histidine-rich protein (KAHRP), which is responsible for the assembly of knob structures at the infected erythrocyte surface. Knobs are required for correct display of the polymorphic adhesion ligand P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a key virulence determinant encoded by a repertoire of var genes.
This population-based open cohort study aims to investigate biological and sociodemographic drivers of malaria transmission in the main urban hotspot of Amazonian Brazil.
G-quadruplexes are non-helical secondary structures that can fold in vivo in both DNA and RNA. In human cells, they can influence replication, transcription and telomere maintenance in DNA, or translation, transcript processing and stability of RNA. We have previously showed that G-quadruplexes are detectable in the DNA of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, despite a very highly A/T-biased genome with unusually few guanine-rich sequences. Here, we show that RNA G-quadruplexes can also form in P. falciparum RNA, using rG4-seq for transcriptome-wide structure-specific RNA probing.
WHO recently approved a partially effective vaccine that reduces clinical malaria in children, but increased vaccine activity is required to pursue malaria elimination. A phase 1 clinical trial was done in Mali, west Africa, to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a three-dose regimen of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) Vaccine (a metabolically active, non-replicating, whole malaria sporozoite vaccine) against homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) and natural P falciparum infection.
Efforts to control and further reduce morbidity and mortality caused by Plasmodium falciparum infections in all age groups will be substantially strengthened by development of efficacious malaria vaccines in malaria pre-exposed populations.
Malaria is a complex parasitic disease, caused by Plasmodium spp. More than a century after the discovery of malaria parasites, this disease continues to pose a global public health problem and the pathogenesis of the severe forms of malaria remains incompletely understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have been increasingly researched in the field of malaria in a bid to fill these knowledge gaps.
The histo-blood group ABO system has been associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19, thromboembolic diseases and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An integral part of the severe malaria pathogenesis is rosetting, the adherence of parasite infected red blood cells (RBCs) to uninfected RBCs. Rosetting is influenced by the host’s ABO blood group (Bg) and rosettes formed in BgA have previously been shown to be more resilient to disruption by heparin and shield the parasite derived surface antigens from antibodies. However, data on rosetting in weak BgA subgroups is scarce and based on investigations of relatively few donors.
In Sahelian Africa, the risk of malaria increases with the arrival of the rains, particularly in young children. Following successful trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in areas with seasonal peak in malaria cases. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of SMC in Northern Ghana.
Mathematical models are increasingly used to inform decisions throughout product development pathways from pre-clinical studies to country implementation of novel health interventions.