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Assessment of climate change impact on the malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus, West Nile disease, and incidence of melanoma in the Vojvodina Province (Serbia) using data from a regional climate model

January 20, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mihailović DT, Petrić D, Ignjatović-Ćupina A, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(1): e0227679

Motivated by the One Health paradigm, we found the expected changes in temperature and UV radiation (UVR) to be a common trigger for enhancing the risk that viruses, vectors, and diseases pose to human and animal health. We compared data from the mosquito field collections and medical studies with regional climate model projections to examine the impact of climate change on the spreading of one malaria vector, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV), and the incidence of melanoma.

NOT Open Access | Improved stability of polyclonal antibodies: A case study with lyophilization-conserved antibodies raised against epitopes from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

January 20, 2020 - 16:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Simon N, Sperber C, Voigtländer C, Born J, Gilbert DF, Seyferth S, Lee G, Kappes B, Friedrich O
Reference: 
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 142, 15 January 2020, 105086

Antibodies can be produced as polyclonal (pAb) or monoclonal (mAb) liquid formulations with limited shelf-life. For pAbs, unlike mAbs, only little is known about excipients and lyophilization affecting antibody stability upon reconstitution. We used a model pAb directed against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pyridoxal 5′-phosphate synthase 2 (Pdx2) to systemically study effects of bulking agents (amino acids, phosphate buffers, salt solutions), sugar(alcohols), surfactants and protein additions (bovine serum albumin, BSA) in liquid pAb formulations (isolated or in combinations) on the activity to detect the antigen in Pf extracts by Western blots.

Immunological Evaluation of Synthetic Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Glycoconjugates as Vaccine Candidates against Malaria

January 20, 2020 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Malik A, Steinbeis F, Carillo MA, Seeberger PH, Lepenies B, Varón Silva D
Reference: 
ACS Chem. Biol. 2020, 15, 1, 171-178

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are complex glycolipids present on the surfaces of Plasmodium parasites that may act as toxins during the progression of malaria. GPIs can activate the immune system during infection and induce the formation of anti-GPI antibodies that neutralize their activity. Therefore, an antitoxic vaccine based on GPI glycoconjugates may prevent malaria pathogenesis. To evaluate the role of three key modifications on Plasmodium GPI glycan in the activity of these glycolipids, we synthesized and investigated six structurally distinct GPI fragments from Plasmodium falciparum.

Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, 2015-2017: Ongoing Increase in Incidence Despite Near-elimination of the Human-only Plasmodium Species

January 20, 2020 - 16:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cooper DJ, Rajahram GS, Barber BE, et al.
Reference: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 3, 1 February 2020, Pages 361–367

Malaysia aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, while cases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have decreased substantially, the incidence of zoonotic malaria from Plasmodium knowlesi continues to increase, presenting a major challenge to regional malaria control efforts. Here we report incidence of all Plasmodium species in Sabah, including zoonotic P. knowlesi, during 2015–2017.

Use of a highly-sensitive rapid diagnostic test to screen for malaria in pregnancy in Indonesia

January 20, 2020 - 15:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vera T. Unwin, Rukhsana Ahmed, Emily R. Adams, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:28, 16 January 2020

The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria is inadequate for detecting low-density, often asymptomatic infections, such as those that can occur when screening pregnant women for malaria. The performance of the Alere™ Ultra-sensitive Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum RDT (uRDT) was assessed retrospectively in pregnant women in Indonesia.

Associations between red blood cell variants and malaria among children and adults from three areas of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

January 20, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Elijah Kakande, Bryan Greenhouse, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:21, 15 January 2020

Multiple red blood cell (RBC) variants appear to offer protection against the most severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Associations between these variants and uncomplicated malaria are less clear.

Asymptomatic falciparum Malaria and its Effects on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Lagos, Nigeria

January 20, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Udoh BE, Iwalokun BA, Etukumana E, Amoo J
Reference: 
Saudi J Med Med Sci. 2020 Jan-Apr; 8(1):32-40

Asymptomatic malaria (ASM) constitutes a reservoir of malaria parasites that sustain transmission and threaten elimination efforts. Studies have also shown a significant relation between insulin resistance and malaria infection. However, data on the clinical effects of ASM and its patterns of carriage among adult malaria patients is limited.

NOT Open Access | Deciphering host immunity to malaria using systems immunology

January 20, 2020 - 15:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Loiseau C, Cooper MM, Doolan DL
Reference: 
Immunological Reviews, Volume293, Issue1, January 2020, Pages 115-143

A century of conceptual and technological advances in infectious disease research has changed the face of medicine. However, there remains a lack of effective interventions and a poor understanding of host immunity to the most significant and complex pathogens, including malaria. The development of successful interventions against such intractable diseases requires a comprehensive understanding of host‐pathogen immune responses.

NOT Open Access | The immune response to malaria in utero

January 20, 2020 - 15:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Feeney ME
Reference: 
Immunological Reviews, Volume293, Issue1, Pages 216-229

Malaria causes tremendous early childhood morbidity and mortality, providing an urgent impetus for the development of a vaccine that is effective in neonates. However, the infant immune response to malaria may be influenced by events that occur well before birth. Placental malaria infection complicates one quarter of all pregnancies in Africa and frequently results in exposure of the fetus to malaria antigens in utero, while the immune system is still developing. Some data suggest that in utero exposure to malaria may induce immunologic tolerance that interferes with the development of protective immunity during childhood.

PCR correction strategies for malaria drug trials: updates and clarifications

January 20, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Felger I, Snounou G, Hastings I, Moehrle JJ, Beck HP
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jan; 20(1):e20-e25

Malaria drug trials conducted in endemic areas face a major challenge in their analysis because it is difficult to establish whether parasitaemia in blood samples collected after treatment indicate drug failure or a new infection acquired after treatment. It is therefore vital to reliably distinguish drug failures from new infections in order to obtain accurate estimates of drug failure rates.

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