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Plasmodium vivax AMA1: Implications of distinct haplotypes for immune response

July 9, 2020 - 08:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bittencourt NC, da Silva ABIE, Albrecht L, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(7): e0008471

In Brazil, Plasmodium vivax infection accounts for around 80% of malaria cases. This infection has a substantial impact on the productivity of the local population as the course of the disease is usually prolonged and the development of acquired immunity in endemic areas takes several years. The recent emergence of drug-resistant strains has intensified research on alternative control methods such as vaccines.

NOT Open Access | Concentration-dependent mortality of chloroquine in overdose

July 9, 2020 - 08:43 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Watson JA, Tarning J, Hoglund RM, Baud FJ, Megarbane B, Clemessy JL, White NJ
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Jul 8;9:e58631

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are used extensively in malaria and rheumatological conditions, and now in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Although generally safe they are potentially lethal in overdose. In-vitro data suggest that high concentrations and thus high doses are needed for COVID-19 infections, but as yet there is no convincing evidence of clinical efficacy.

Enhancing the antimalarial activity of artesunate

July 8, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adebayo JO, Tijjani H, Adegunloye AP, Ishola AA, Balogun EA, Malomo SO
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2020 Jul 7

The global challenge to the treatment of malaria is mainly the occurrence of resistance of malaria parasites to conventionally used antimalarials. Artesunate, a semisynthetic artemisinin compound, and other artemisinin derivatives are currently used in combination with selected active antimalarial drugs in order to prevent or delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives.

The proofreading activity of Pfprex from Plasmodium falciparum can prevent mutagenesis of the apicoplast genome by oxidized nucleotides

July 8, 2020 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharma M, Narayanan N, Nair DT
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 7;10(1):11157

The DNA polymerase module of the Pfprex enzyme (PfpPol) is responsible for duplication of the genome of the apicoplast organelle in the malaria parasite. We show that PfpPol can misincorporate oxidized nucleotides such as 8oxodGTP opposite dA. This event gives rise to transversion mutations that are known to lead to adverse physiological outcomes.

Host and Parasite Transcriptomic Changes upon Successive Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Early Childhood

July 8, 2020 - 15:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bradwell KR, Coulibaly D, David Serre, et al.
Reference: 
mSystems Jul 2020, 5 (4) e00116-20

Children are highly susceptible to clinical malaria, and in regions where malaria is endemic, their immune systems must face successive encounters with Plasmodium falciparum parasites before they develop immunity, first against severe disease and later against uncomplicated malaria. Understanding cellular and molecular interactions between host and parasites during an infection could provide insights into the processes underlying this gradual acquisition of immunity, as well as to how parasites adapt to infect hosts that are successively more malaria experienced.

NOT Open Access | Water Bridges Play a Key Role in the Affinity and Selectivity for the Malarial Protease Falcipain-2

July 8, 2020 - 15:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hernandez Gonzalez JE, Hernández Alvarez L, Leite VBP, Pascutti PG
Reference: 
J Chem Inf Model. 2020 Jul 7

Falcipain-2 (FP-2) is hemoglobinase considered an attractive drug target of Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, it has been shown that peptidomimetic nitriles containing a 3-pyridine (3Pyr) moiety at P2 display high affinity and selectivity for FP-2 with respect to human cysteine cathepsins (hCats). Further characterization demonstrated that certain P3 variants of these compounds possess micromolar inhibition of parasite growth in vitro and no cytotoxicity against human cell lines.

NOT Open Access | The extent of chloroquine underdosing in adult patients with malaria by Plasmodium vivax from an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon basin

July 8, 2020 - 15:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Valéria Dias Ferreira M, Gabryelle Nunes Cardoso Mello A, Wendel Pereira de Sena L, Regina Matos Lopes T, Luiz Fernandes Vieira J
Reference: 
Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Jul 7

To evaluate the extent of chloroquine underdosing and to measure the concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in adult patients with P. vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon basin.

Composition and abundance of anopheline species according to habitat diversity in Mexico

July 8, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Villarreal-Treviño C, Ríos-Delgado JC, Penilla-Navarro RP, Rodríguez AD, López JH, Nettel-Cruz JA, Moo-Llanes DA, Fuentes-Maldonado G
Reference: 
Salud Publica Mex. 2020 Jul-Aug;62(4):388-401

To determine the abundance and geographic distribution of the main malaria vectors, which are influenced by habitat characteristics and ecological factors that directly impact adult density and the dynamics of malaria transmission in Mexico.

Defining the combined benefit of intermittent preventive malaria treatment in pregnancy

July 8, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Salman S, Davis TME, Moore B
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Jul;8(7):e871-e872

WHO  has  included  intermittent  preventive  treatment  in  pregnancy  (IPTp)  with  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine  as  an  important  malaria  intervention  since  2012.1  Although  other candidate therapies remain under investigation and despite  waning  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine  antimalarial  efficacy  due  to  increasing  parasite  resistance,  IPTp  with  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine  remains  a  key  component  of   the   management   of   pregnant   women   in   malaria-endemic areas. In areas of high-grade parasite resistance, the   use   of   IPTp   with   sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine   is   associated with improved birth weight, suggesting that there are benefits of beyond antimalarial efficacy.

Overall, anti-malarial, and non-malarial effect of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on birthweight: a mediation analysis

July 8, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Roh ME, Kuile FOT, Rerolle F, Glymour MM, Shiboski S, Gosling R, Gutman J, Kakuru A, Desai M, Kajubi R, L'Ianziva A, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Chico RM
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Jul;8(7):e942-e953

Trials of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) of malaria in pregnant women that compared dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with the standard of care, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, showed dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was superior at preventing malaria infection, but not at improving birthweight. We aimed to assess whether sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine shows greater non-malarial benefits for birth outcomes than does dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and whether dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine shows greater antimalarial benefits for birth outcomes than does sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.

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