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Anopheline bionomics, insecticide resistance and transnational dispersion in the context of controlling a possible recurrence of malaria transmission in Jaffna city in northern Sri Lanka

April 3, 2020 - 09:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Surendran SN, Jayadas TTP, Tharsan A, Thiruchenthooran V, Santhirasegaram S, Sivabalakrishnan K, Raveendran S, Ramasamy R
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Mar 30;13(1):156

Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2013. However, the influx of infected travelers and the presence of potent anopheline vectors can re-initiate transmission in Jaffna city, which is separated by a narrow strait from the malaria-endemic Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Classification of induced malaria case in an elimination setting: investigation of transfusion-transmitted malaria cases

March 31, 2020 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mei-hua Zhang, Sui Xu, Jun Cao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:136, 30 March 2020

Since the National Malaria Elimination Action Plan was launched in China in 2010, local malaria transmission has decreased rapidly. Zero indigenous cases were reported since 2017. However, after 2010, the proportion of imported cases in China increased from 45.7% in 2010 to 99.9% in 2016, and almost all provinces of China have reported imported cases in recent years. Prevention of the reintroduction of malaria into China is crucial for the maintenance of its malaria-free status. Hence, it is of utmost importance to correctly identify the source of malaria infections within the country.

“We have this, with my husband, we live in harmony”: exploring the gendered decision-making matrix for malaria prevention and treatment in Nampula Province, Mozambique

March 31, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zoe Jane-Lara Hildon, Maria Escorcio-Ymayo, Rose Zulliger, Rosario Arias de Aramburú, Nan Lewicky, Hunter Harig, Jose Braz Chidassicua, Carol Underwood, Liliana Pinto and Maria Elena Figueroa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:133, 30 March 2020

Conceptualizing gender dynamics and ways of bridging entrenched gender roles will contribute to better health promotion, policy and planning. Such processes are explored in relation to malaria in Mozambique.

Distribution of malaria patients seeking care in different types of health facilities during the implementation of National Malaria Elimination Programme

March 31, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gang Li, Donglan Zhang, Zhanchun Feng, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:131, 30 March 2020

China launched the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) in 2010 and set the goal that all health facilities should be able to diagnose malaria. Additionally, hospitals at all levels could treat malaria by 2015. To provide a reference for the control of imported malaria, a study was conducted on the distribution of malaria patients seeking care in different types of health facilities.

Screening for malaria antigen and anti-malarial IgG antibody in forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals: Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh, 2018

March 31, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Austin Lu, Olivia Cote, Eric Rogier, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:130, 30 March 2020

Several refugee settlements in Bangladesh have provided housing and medical care for the forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals (FDMN, also known as Rohingya) population. The identification of malaria infection status in the refugee settlements is useful in treating infected persons and in developing malaria prevention recommendations. Assays for Plasmodium antigens and human IgG against Plasmodium parasites can be used as indicators to determine malaria infection status and exposure.

WHO malaria nucleic acid amplification test external quality assessment scheme: results of distribution programmes one to three

March 31, 2020 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jane A. Cunningham, Rebecca M. Thomson, Jaya Shrivastava, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:129, 30 March 2020

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends parasite-based diagnosis of malaria. In recent years, there has been surge in the use of various kinds of nucleic-acid amplification based tests (NAATs) for detection and identification of Plasmodium spp. to support clinical care in high-resource settings and clinical and epidemiological research worldwide. However, these tests are not without challenges, including lack (or limited use) of standards and lack of reproducibility, due in part to variation in protocols amongst laboratories. Therefore, there is a need for rigorous quality control, including a robust external quality assessment (EQA) scheme targeted towards malaria NAATs. To this effect, the WHO Global Malaria Programme worked with the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) Parasitology and with technical experts to launch a global NAAT EQA scheme in January 2017.

Rapid shifts in the age-specific burden of malaria following successful control interventions in four regions of Uganda

March 31, 2020 - 15:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Simon P. Kigozi, Ruth N. Kigozi, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:128, 30 March 2020

Malaria control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) has been associated with reduced transmission throughout Africa. However, the impact of transmission reduction on the age distribution of malaria cases remains unclear.

Molecular detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes carriage in used RDTs in malaria elimination settings in northern Senegal

March 31, 2020 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kiswendsida Thierry Guiguemde, Yakou Dieye, Babacar Faye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:123, 30 March 2020

Malaria surveillance requires powerful tools and strategies to achieve malaria elimination. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) are easily deployed on a large scale and are helpful sources of parasite DNA. The application of sensitive molecular techniques to these RDTs is a modern tool for improving malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. Several studies have made it possible to extract the DNA of Plasmodium falciparum from RDTs. The knowledge of gametocyte carriage in the population is important to better assess the level of parasite transmission in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to detect P. falciparum gametocytes from used RDTs by quantitative PCR for molecular monitoring of malaria transmission.

NOT Open Access | Malaria exposure drives both cognate and bystander human B cells to adopt an atypical phenotype

March 31, 2020 - 15:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Aye R, Sutton HJ, Nduati EW, Kai O, Mwacharo J, Musyoki J, Otieno E, Wambua J, Bejon P, Cockburn IA, Ndungu FM
Reference: 
Eur J Immunol. 2020 Mar 29

Atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) are found in elevated numbers in individuals exposed to malaria. A key question is whether malaria induces aMBCs as a result of exposure to antigen, or non‐antigen specific mechanisms. We identified Plasmodium and bystander tetanus toxoid (TT) specific B cells in individuals from areas of previous and persistent exposure to malaria using tetramers.

WHO technical brief for countries preparing malaria funding requests for the Global Fund (2020 - 2022)

March 31, 2020 - 13:51 -- Malaria World

 

After many years of great progress in our fight against malaria, our trajectory is plateauing and the world will not achieve the 2020 malaria targets for morbidity and mortality reduction. With over 400 000 deaths and in excess of 200 million malaria cases each year, we must urgently evolve our approach if we are to realize the full potential of current tools and the available resources and get back on track.

The country-led “High burden high impact” (HBHI) response, launched in 2018 by WHO and the RBM Partnership to End Malaria, aims to reignite the pace of progress in the global malaria fight and is guided by four key elements.

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