Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2013. However, the influx of infected travelers and the presence of potent anopheline vectors can re-initiate transmission in Jaffna city, which is separated by a narrow strait from the malaria-endemic Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Since the National Malaria Elimination Action Plan was launched in China in 2010, local malaria transmission has decreased rapidly. Zero indigenous cases were reported since 2017. However, after 2010, the proportion of imported cases in China increased from 45.7% in 2010 to 99.9% in 2016, and almost all provinces of China have reported imported cases in recent years. Prevention of the reintroduction of malaria into China is crucial for the maintenance of its malaria-free status. Hence, it is of utmost importance to correctly identify the source of malaria infections within the country.
Conceptualizing gender dynamics and ways of bridging entrenched gender roles will contribute to better health promotion, policy and planning. Such processes are explored in relation to malaria in Mozambique.
China launched the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) in 2010 and set the goal that all health facilities should be able to diagnose malaria. Additionally, hospitals at all levels could treat malaria by 2015. To provide a reference for the control of imported malaria, a study was conducted on the distribution of malaria patients seeking care in different types of health facilities.
Several refugee settlements in Bangladesh have provided housing and medical care for the forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals (FDMN, also known as Rohingya) population. The identification of malaria infection status in the refugee settlements is useful in treating infected persons and in developing malaria prevention recommendations. Assays for Plasmodium antigens and human IgG against Plasmodium parasites can be used as indicators to determine malaria infection status and exposure.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends parasite-based diagnosis of malaria. In recent years, there has been surge in the use of various kinds of nucleic-acid amplification based tests (NAATs) for detection and identification of Plasmodium spp. to support clinical care in high-resource settings and clinical and epidemiological research worldwide. However, these tests are not without challenges, including lack (or limited use) of standards and lack of reproducibility, due in part to variation in protocols amongst laboratories. Therefore, there is a need for rigorous quality control, including a robust external quality assessment (EQA) scheme targeted towards malaria NAATs. To this effect, the WHO Global Malaria Programme worked with the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) Parasitology and with technical experts to launch a global NAAT EQA scheme in January 2017.
Malaria control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) has been associated with reduced transmission throughout Africa. However, the impact of transmission reduction on the age distribution of malaria cases remains unclear.
Malaria surveillance requires powerful tools and strategies to achieve malaria elimination. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) are easily deployed on a large scale and are helpful sources of parasite DNA. The application of sensitive molecular techniques to these RDTs is a modern tool for improving malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. Several studies have made it possible to extract the DNA of Plasmodium falciparum from RDTs. The knowledge of gametocyte carriage in the population is important to better assess the level of parasite transmission in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to detect P. falciparum gametocytes from used RDTs by quantitative PCR for molecular monitoring of malaria transmission.
Atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) are found in elevated numbers in individuals exposed to malaria. A key question is whether malaria induces aMBCs as a result of exposure to antigen, or non‐antigen specific mechanisms. We identified Plasmodium and bystander tetanus toxoid (TT) specific B cells in individuals from areas of previous and persistent exposure to malaria using tetramers.
After many years of great progress in our fight against malaria, our trajectory is plateauing and the world will not achieve the 2020 malaria targets for morbidity and mortality reduction. With over 400 000 deaths and in excess of 200 million malaria cases each year, we must urgently evolve our approach if we are to realize the full potential of current tools and the available resources and get back on track.
The country-led “High burden high impact” (HBHI) response, launched in 2018 by WHO and the RBM Partnership to End Malaria, aims to reignite the pace of progress in the global malaria fight and is guided by four key elements.