Artesunate-amodiaquine is a potential therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Cambodia.
Cambodia has targeted malaria elimination within its territory by 2025 and is developing a model elimination package of strategies and interventions designed to achieve this goal.
Cambodia targets malaria elimination by 2025. Rapid elimination will depend on successfully identifying and clearing malaria foci linked to forests. Expanding and maintaining universal access to early diagnosis and effective treatment remains the key to malaria control and ultimately malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in the foreseeable future. Mass Drug Administration (MDA) holds some promise in the rapid reduction of Plasmodium falciparum infections, but requires considerable investment of resources and time to mobilize the target communities.
Understanding the genetic structure of natural populations provides insight into the demographic and adaptive processes that have affected those populations. Such information, particularly when integrated with geospatial data, can have translational applications for a variety of fields, including public health. Estimated effective migration surfaces (EEMS) is an approach that allows visualization of the spatial patterns in genomic data to understand population structure and migration. In this study, we developed a workflow to optimize the resolution of spatial grids used to generate EEMS migration maps and applied this optimized workflow to estimate migration of Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia and bordering regions of Thailand and Vietnam.
Aedes-transmitted diseases, especially dengue, are increasing throughout the world and the main preventive methods include vector control and the avoidance of mosquito bites. A simple Premise Condition Index (PCI) categorizing shade, house, and yard conditions was previously developed to help prioritize households or geographical areas where resources are limited. However, evidence about the accuracy of the PCI is mixed.
Cambodia is the epicentre of the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Much less is known regarding the drug susceptibility of the co-endemic Plasmodium vivax. Only in vitro drug assays can determine the parasite’s intrinsic susceptibility, but these are challenging to implement for P. vivax and rarely performed.
Since 2012, single low dose of primaquine (SLDPQ, 0.25mg/kg) has been recommended with artemisinin-based combination therapies, as first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to interrupt its transmission, especially in low transmission settings of multidrug, including artemisinin, resistance. Policy makers in Cambodia have been reluctant to implement this recommendation due to primaquine safety concerns and lack of data on its efficacy.
In “Hemolytic Dynamics of Weekly Primaquine Antirelapse Therapy Among Cambodians With Acute Plasmodium vivax Malaria With or Without Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency” by Taylor et al [J Infect Dis 2019; 220(11): 1750–60], P values should be P < 0.001 where 0.000 is written. This has been updated in the article.
The authors regret these errors.
Adding 8-aminoquinoline to the treatment of falciparum, in addition to vivax malaria, in locations where infections with both species are prevalent could prevent vivax reactivation. The potential risk of haemolysis under a universal radical cure policy using 8-aminoquinoline needs to be weighed against the benefit of preventing repeated vivax episodes. Estimating the frequency of sequential Plasmodium vivax infections following either falciparum or vivax malaria episodes is needed for such an assessment.
The ongoing spread of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major threat to global health. In response, countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, including Cambodia, have declared ambitious goals to eliminate malaria. Major challenges include the lack of information on the at-risk population-individuals who live or work in or near the forest where the malaria vectors are found, including plantation workers. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap through a cross-sectional survey conducted in rubber plantations in Cambodia in 2014.