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ACT

Demonstration of indigenous malaria elimination through Track-Test-Treat-Track (T4) strategy in a Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

September 17, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Praveen K. Bharti, Harsh Rajvanshi, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:339, 17 September 2020

Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum cases and molecular surveillance of drug resistance genes in Western Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yanrui Wu, Myat Thut Soe, Pyae Linn Aung, Luyi Zhao, Weilin Zeng, Lynette Menezes, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw and Liwang Cui
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:304, 27 August 2020

Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line anti-malarial treatment in malaria-endemic areas. However, resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin-based combinations emerging in the Greater Mekong Sub-region is a major problem hindering malaria elimination. To continuously monitor the potential spread of ACT-resistant parasites, this study assessed the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for falciparum malaria in western Myanmar.

Antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) and COVID-19 in Africa: In vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by mefloquine-artesunate

August 19, 2020 - 09:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gendrot M, Duflot I, Boxberger M, Delandre O, Jardot P, Le Bideau M, Andreani J, Fonta I, Mosnier J, Rolland C, Hutter S, La Scola B, Pradines B
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 14:S1201-9712(20)30661-5

At the end of November 2019, a novel coronavirus responsible for respiratory tract infections (COVID-19) emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, this virus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spread in Asia and Europe. The pandemic is ongoing with particular hotspot in Southern Europe and America. Many studies predicted a similar epidemic in Africa as that currently seen in Europe and the United States of America. However, reported data do not confirm these predictions. One of the hypotheses that could explain the later emergence and spread of COVID-19 pandemic in African countries is the use of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria, and more particularly artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

Assessment of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance among children participating in a therapeutic efficacy study in western Kenya

August 17, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Winnie Chebore, Zhiyong Zhou, Simon Kariuki, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:291, 14 August 2020

Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a major threat to global malaria control efforts. In Africa, Plasmodium falciparum remains susceptible to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), but the emergence of resistant parasites in multiple countries in Southeast Asia and concerns over emergence and/or spread of resistant parasites in Africa warrants continuous monitoring. The World Health Organization recommends that surveillance for molecular markers of resistance be included within therapeutic efficacy studies (TES). The current study assessed molecular markers associated with resistance to Artemether−lumefantrine (AL) and Dihydroartemisinin−piperaquine (DP) from samples collected from children aged 6–59 months enrolled in a TES conducted in Siaya County, western Kenya from 2016 to 2017.

Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives in the First Trimester of Pregnancy: A Controversial Story

August 5, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
D'Alessandro S, Menegola E, Parapini S, Taramelli D, Basilico N
Reference: 
Molecules. 2020 Jul 31;25(15):E3505

Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria both in adults and children. During pregnancy, ACT is considered safe only in the second and third trimester, since animal studies have demonstrated that artemisinin derivatives can cause foetal death and congenital malformation within a narrow time window in early embryogenesis.

Stocking pattern for anti-malarial medications among proprietary patent medicine vendors in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

August 4, 2020 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mary Y. Kodaolu, Adeniyi F. Fagbamigbe and IkeOluwapo O. Ajayi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:279, 3 August 2020

Policymakers have recognized that proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) can provide an opportunity for effective scaling up of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) since they constitute a major source of malaria treatment in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the stocking pattern for anti-malarial medications, knowledge of the recommended anti-malarial medicine among PPMVs in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria and their perception on ways to improve PPMV adherence to stocking ACT medicines.

Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, Zanzibar

August 4, 2020 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Msellem M, Morris U, Soe A, Abbas FB, Ali AW, Barnes R, Frumento P, Ali AS, Mårtensson A, Björkman A
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;26(8):1767-1777

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. ACT resistance is spreading in Asia but not yet in Africa. Reduced effects of ACT partner drugs have been reported but with little information regarding widely used artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ).

NOT Open Access | Efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine and artesunate monotherapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Central Vietnam

August 3, 2020 - 16:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rovira-Vallbona E, Van Hong N, Kattenberg JH, Huan RM, Hien NTT, Ngoc NTH, Guetens P, Hieu NL, Mai TT, Duong NTT, Duong TT, Phuc BQ, Xa NX, Erhart A, Rosanas-Urgell A
Reference: 
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Aug 1; 75(8):2272-2281

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have significantly contributed to reduce Plasmodium falciparum malaria burden in Vietnam, but their efficacy is challenged by treatment failure of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine ACT in Southern provinces.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum Isolates Carrying pfk13 Polymorphisms Harbor the SVMNT Allele of pfcrt in Northwestern Indonesia

July 27, 2020 - 12:26 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lubis IND, Wijaya H, Lubis M, Lubis CP, Beshir KB, Sutherland CJ
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jul 22; 64(8):e02539-19

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line antimalarial regimen in Indonesia. Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin is falling in the Greater Mekong subregion, but it is not known whether the efficacy of current combinations is also threatened in nearby Sumatera. We evaluated the genetic loci pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfk13, considered to be under selection by artemisinin combination therapy, among 404 P. falciparum infections identified by PCR detection in a cross-sectional survey of 3,731 residents of three regencies.

Activities of artesunate-based combinations and tafenoquine against Babesia bovis in vitro and Babesia microti in vivo

July 21, 2020 - 15:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carvalho LJM, Tuvshintulga B, Nugraha AB, Sivakumar T, Yokoyama N
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 20;13(1):362

Babesiosis represents a veterinary and medical threat, with a need for novel drugs. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) have been successfully implemented for malaria, a human disease caused by related parasites, Plasmodium spp. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACT is active against Babesia in vitro and in vivo.

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