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ACT

Mass Drug Administration With High-Dose Ivermectin and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Malaria Elimination in an Area of Low Transmission With High Coverage of Malaria Control Interventions: Protocol for the MASSIV Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial

November 25, 2020 - 12:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dabira ED, Soumare HM, D'Alessandro U, et al.
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2020 Nov 19;9(11):e20904

With a decline in malaria burden, innovative interventions and tools are required to reduce malaria transmission further. Mass drug administration (MDA) of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been identified as a potential tool to further reduce malaria transmission, where coverage of vector control interventions is already high. However, the impact is limited in time. Combining an ACT with an endectocide treatment that is able to reduce vector survival, such as ivermectin (IVM), could increase the impact of MDA and offer a new tool to reduce malaria transmission.

Molecular surveillance of antimalarial partner drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial-temporal evidence mapping study

November 18, 2020 - 12:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanna Y Ehrlich, Justin Jones, Sunil Parikh
Reference: 
Lancet Microbe. 2020 Sep;1(5):e209-e217.

Molecular markers for antimalarial drug resistance can be used to rapidly monitor the emergence and spatial distribution of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Little has been done to analyse molecular surveillance efforts or to assess surveillance coverage. This study aimed to develop an evidence map to characterise the spatial-temporal distribution and sampling methodologies of drug resistance surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on markers associated with ACT partner drugs.

Trends in health workers’ compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines across malaria epidemiological zones in Kenya, 2010–2016

November 12, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beatrice Amboko, Kasia Stepniewska, Peter M. Macharia, Beatrice Machini, Philip Bejon, Robert W. Snow and Dejan Zurovac
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:406, 11 November 2020

Health workers' compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines has been improving, specifically regarding the universal testing of suspected cases and the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) only for positive results (i.e., ‘test and treat’). Whether the improvements in compliance with ‘test and treat’ guidelines are consistent across different malaria endemicity areas has not been examined.

The risk of adverse clinical outcomes following treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with and without primaquine in Papua, Indonesia

November 12, 2020 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thriemer K, Poespoprodjo JR, Kenangalem E, Douglas NM, Sugiarto P, Anstey NM, Simpson JA, Price RN
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Nov 11;14(11):e0008838

The widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure for P. vivax, is constrained by concerns over its safety. We used routinely collected patient data to compare the overall morbidity and mortality in patients treated with and without PQ without prior testing of Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Papua, Indonesia, where there is a low prevalence of G6PD deficiency. Records were collated from patients older than 1 year, with P. vivax infection, who were treated with an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).

NOT Open Access | Artemisinin Activity in Red Blood Cells from Anemic Children

November 11, 2020 - 14:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Joof F, Goheen MM, Cerami C
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 9

Artemisinin combination therapies are the current frontline therapy for falciparum malaria. Artemisinin is activated by heme iron, and the consequent production of reactive oxygen species and carbon-centered radicals results in rapid parasite clearance. Red blood cells (RBCs) from anemic iron-deficient individuals have decreased levels of heme, and such deficiencies are highly prevalent among children and pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries.

Kelch 13-propeller polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum from Jazan region, southwest Saudi Arabia

November 10, 2020 - 14:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ommer Mohammed Dafalla, Mohammed Alzahrani, Zaki Manawar Eisa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:397, 10 November 2020

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended at the initial phase for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum, to reduce morbidity and mortality in all countries where malaria is endemic. Polymorphism in portions of P. falciparum gene encoding kelch (K13)-propeller domains is associated with delayed parasite clearance after ACT. Of about 124 different non-synonymous mutations, 46 have been identified in Southeast Asia (SEA), 62 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and 16 in both the regions. This is the first study designed to analyse the prevalence of polymorphism in the P. falciparum k13-propeller domain in the Jazan region of southwest Saudi Arabia, where malaria is endemic.

Subsidise the test, the treatment or both? Results of an individually randomised controlled trial of the management of suspected malaria fevers in the retail sector in western Kenya

November 7, 2020 - 12:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Laktabai J, Saran I, Zhou Y, Simmons RA, Turner EL, Visser T, O'Meara W
Reference: 
BMJ Glob Health. 2020 Nov;5(11):e003378

In many malaria-endemic countries, the private retail sector is a major source of antimalarial drugs. However, the rarity of malaria diagnostic testing in the retail sector leads to overuse of the first-line class of antimalarial drugs known as artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs). The goal of this study was to identify the combination of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and ACT subsidies that maximises the proportion of clients seeking care in a retail outlet that choose to purchase an RDT (RDT uptake) and use ACTs appropriately.

Transmission of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites to mosquitoes under antimalarial drug pressure

November 4, 2020 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Witmer K, Dahalan FA, Baum J, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Nov 2:AAC.00898-20

Resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is threatening to reverse recent gains in reducing global deaths from malaria. Whilst resistance manifests as delayed parasite clearance in patients the phenotype can only spread geographically via the sexual stages and mosquito transmission. In addition to their asexual killing properties, artemisinin and its derivatives sterilise sexual male gametocytes.

Pharmacovigilance of suspected or confirmed therapeutic ineffectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy: extent, associated factors, challenges and solutions to reporting

November 4, 2020 - 10:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ronald Kiguba, Helen Byomire Ndagije, Victoria Nambasa, Leonard Manirakiza, Elijah Kirabira, Allan Serwanga, Sten Olsson, Niko Speybroeck and Jackson Mukonzo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:389, 3 November 2020

Therapeutic ineffectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) increases the risk of malaria-related morbidity and mortality, and raises healthcare costs. Yet, little has been done to promote the pharmacovigilance (PV) of ACT ineffectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda. This study aimed to determine the extent and associated factors of the past 6 months reporting of suspected or confirmed ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness by healthcare professionals (HCPs), and difficulties and potential solutions to the PV of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness.

Molecular detection of drug resistant polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Southwest, Nigeria

October 31, 2020 - 09:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tola M, Ajibola O, Idowu ET, Omidiji O, Awolola ST, Amambua-Ngwa A.
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Oct 27;13(1):497

Nigeria bears 25% of global malaria burden despite concerted efforts towards its control and elimination. The emergence of drug resistance to first line drugs, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), indicates an urgent need for continuous molecular surveillance of drug resistance especially in high burden countries where drug interventions are heavily relied on. This study describes mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes associated with drug resistance in malaria; Pfk13, Pfmdr1, PfATPase6 and Pfcrt in isolates obtained from 83 symptomatic malaria patients collected in August 2014, aged 1–61 years old from South-west Nigeria.

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