Eradication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria will likely require a multivalent vaccine, but the development of a highly efficacious subunit-based formulation has been challenging. We previously showed that production and immunogenicity of two leading vaccine targets, PfMSP119 (blood-stage) and Pfs25 (sexual stage), could be enhanced upon genetic fusion to merozoite surface protein 8 (PfMSP8). Here, we sought to optimize a Pfs25-based formulation for use in combination with rPfMSP1/8 with the goal of maintaining the immunogenicity of each subunit.
To optimize vaccine implementation visits for young children, it could be efficient to administer the first RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine dose during the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) visit at 6 months of age together with Vitamin A supplementation and the third RTS,S/AS01 dose on the same day as yellow fever (YF), measles and rubella vaccines at 9 months of age. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01 when co-administered with YF and combined measles-rubella (MR) vaccines.
RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine contains the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and may thus serve as a potential hepatitis B vaccine. To evaluate the impact of RTS,S/AS01E when implemented in the Expanded Program of Immunization, infants 8–12 weeks old were randomized to receive either RTS,S/AS01E or a licensed hepatitis B control vaccine (HepB), both co-administered with various combinations of the following childhood vaccines: diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b, trivalent oral poliovirus, pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate and human rotavirus vaccine.
A whole‐killed malaria blood‐stage vaccine (WKV) is promising in reducing the morbidity and mortality of malaria patients, but its efficacy needs to be improved. We found that the antimalarial drug chloroquine could augment the protective efficacy of the WKV of Plasmodium yoelii. The direct antimalarial effect of chloroquine on parasites during immunization could be excluded, as the administration of chloroquine or chloroquine plus alum every two weeks had a slight effect on parasitemia, and an immunization with NP‐KLH (4‐hydroxy‐3‐nitrophenylacetyl Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) plus chloroquine could significantly promote the generation of NP‐specific antibodies. Additionally, alum was required for chloroquine to augment the immunogenicity of the pRBC lysate.
Indian-origin rhesus (InR) are preferred for research, but strict export restrictions continue to limit their use. Chinese-origin rhesus (ChR), although easier to procure, are genetically distinct from InR and differ in their immune response to infectious agents, such as the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S (GlaxoSmithKline), is based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum.