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Kenya

Epidemiological and clinical implications of asymptomatic malaria and schistosomiasis co-infections in a rural community in western Kenya

September 15, 2021 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kamau E, Yates A, Polyak CS, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 9;21(1):937

Malaria and schistosomiasis present considerable disease burden in tropical and sub-tropical areas and severity is worsened by co-infections in areas where both diseases are endemic. Although pathogenesis of these infections separately is well studied, there is limited information on the pathogenic disease mechanisms and clinical disease outcomes in co-infections. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of malaria and schistosomiasis co-infections, and the hematologic and blood chemistry abnormalities in asymptomatic adults in a rural fishing community in western Kenya.

Hepcidin regulation in Kenyan children with severe malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia

September 14, 2021 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Muriuki JM, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Haematologica. 2021 Sep 9

Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.

Insecticide-treated net distribution in Western Kenya: impacts related to COVID-19 and health worker strikes

August 18, 2021 - 17:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Suiyanka L, Alegana VA, Snow RW
Reference: 
Int Health. 2021 Aug 16:ihab051

We examined the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID) mitigation, supply and distribution interruptions on the delivery of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in Western Kenya. The median monthly distribution of LLINs declined during COVID mitigation strategies (March-July 2020) and during the health worker strikes (December 2020-February 2021).

Connected diagnostics to improve accurate diagnosis, treatment, and conditional payment of malaria services in Kenya

August 10, 2021 - 17:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
van Duijn SMC, Siteyi AK, Rinke de Wit TF, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2021 Aug 4;21(1):233

In sub-Saharan Africa, the material and human capacity to diagnose patients reporting with fever to healthcare providers is largely insufficient. Febrile patients are typically treated presumptively with antimalarials and/or antibiotics. Such over-prescription can lead to drug resistance and involves unnecessary costs to the health system. International funding for malaria is currently not sufficient to control malaria. Transition to domestic funding is challenged by UHC efforts and recent COVID-19 outbreak. Herewith we present a digital approach to improve efficiencies in diagnosis and treatment of malaria in endemic Kisumu, Kenya: Connected Diagnostics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, user experience and clinical performance of this approach in Kisumu.

Determinants of the uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine in Sabatia Sub County, Western Kenya

August 10, 2021 - 17:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mutanyi JA, Onguru DO, Ogolla SO, Adipo LB
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Aug 6;10(1):106

Annually, 125.2 million pregnant women worldwide risk contracting malaria, including 30.3 million and 1.5 million in Sub-Saharan Africa and Kenya respectively. At least three doses of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp-SP) is recommended for optimal benefit. Kenya recorded low IPTp-SP optimal uptake in 2015. This study investigated the prevalence of and factors influencing IPTp-SP optimal uptake in Sabatia Sub County, Western Kenya.

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Infections in a Semi-Arid Rural African Setting: Evidence of Reactive Case Detection in Northwestern Kenya

August 4, 2021 - 15:43 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Meredith HR, Wesolowski A, Obala AA, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd210256

In northwestern Kenya, Turkana County has been historically considered unsuitable for stable malaria transmission because of its unfavorable climate and predominantly semi-nomadic population; consequently, it is overlooked during malaria control planning. However, the area is changing, with substantial development, an upsurge in travel associated with resource extraction, and more populated settlements forming. Recently, numerous malaria outbreaks have highlighted the need to characterize malaria transmission and its associated risk factors in the region to inform control strategies.

Understanding the benefits and burdens associated with a malaria human infection study in Kenya: experiences of study volunteers and other stakeholders

July 28, 2021 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chi PC, Owino EA, Jao I, Olewe F, Ogutu B, Bejon P, Kapulu M, Kamuya D, Marsh V
Reference: 
Trials. 2021 Jul 26;22(1):494

Human infection studies (HIS) that involve deliberately infecting healthy volunteers with a pathogen raise important ethical issues, including the need to ensure that benefits and burdens are understood and appropriately accounted for. Building on earlier work, we embedded social science research within an ongoing malaria human infection study in coastal Kenya to understand the study benefits and burdens experienced by study stakeholders in this low-resource setting and assess the wider implications for future research planning and policy.

Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection on the risk of subsequent symptomatic malaria in a longitudinal cohort in Kenya

July 28, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sumner KM, Mangeni JN, Obala AA, Freedman E, Abel L, Meshnick SR, Edwards JK, Pence BW, Prudhomme-O'Meara W, Taylor SM
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Jul 23;10:e68812

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but their effect on subsequent symptomaticity is incompletely understood.

Safety and PCR monitoring in 161 semi-immune Kenyan adults following controlled human malaria infection

July 20, 2021 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kapulu MC, Njuguna P, Hamaluba M, Kimani D, Ngoi JM, Musembi J, Ngoto O, Otieno E, Billingsley PF
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2021 Jul 15:146443

Naturally acquired immunity to malaria is incompletely understood. We used controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) to study the impact of past exposure to malaria in Kenyan adults in relation to infection with a non-Kenyan parasite strain.

Healthcare provider and pregnant women’s perspectives on the implementation of intermittent screening and treatment with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine for malaria in pregnancy in western Kenya: a qualitative study

June 30, 2021 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jenna Hoyt, Jenny Hill, Florence Achieng, Peter Ouma, Simon Kariuki, Meghna Desai and Jayne Webster
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:291, 29 June 2021

In malaria endemic regions in Kenya, pregnant women are offered long-lasting insecticidal nets and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) at antenatal care (ANC) to prevent the adverse effects of malaria. Fears of growing SP resistance have heightened the search for alternative strategies. The implementation feasibility of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) in routine ANC settings was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods, including the exploration of healthcare provider and pregnant women’s perceptions.

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