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Kenya

Changes in the frequencies of Plasmodium falciparum dhps and dhfr drug-resistant mutations in children from Western Kenya from 2005 to 2018: the rise of Pfdhps S436H

October 22, 2020 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
M. Andreína Pacheco, Kristan A. Schneider, Qiuying Cheng, Elly O. Munde, Caroline Ndege, Clinton Onyango, Evans Raballah, Samuel B. Anyona, Collins Ouma, Douglas J. Perkins and Ananias A. Escalante
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:378, 22 October 2020

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the only anti-malarial drug formulation approved for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). However, mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum dhfr (Pfdhfr) and dhps (Pfdhps) genes confer resistance to pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. Here, the frequencies of SP resistance-associated mutations from 2005 to 2018 were compared in samples from Kenyan children with malaria residing in a holoendemic transmission region.

Protective effects of Olyset® Net on Plasmodium falciparum infection after three years of distribution in western Kenya

October 20, 2020 - 16:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noriko Tamari, Noboru Minakawa, George O. Sonye, Beatrice Awuor, James O. Kongere, Muneaki Hashimoto, Masatoshi Kataoka and Stephen Munga
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:373, 19 October 2020

Several types of insecticides, treating technologies and materials are available for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). The variations may result in different efficacies against mosquitoes and correspondingly infection risks for the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. This cross-sectional study investigated whether infection risk varied among children who slept under different LLIN brands in rural villages of western Kenya.

The relationship between facility-based malaria test positivity rate and community-based parasite prevalence

October 8, 2020 - 08:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kamau A, Mtanje G, Mataza C, Malla L, Bejon P, Snow RW
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 7;15(10):e0240058

Malaria surveillance is a key pillar in the control of malaria in Africa. The value of using routinely collected data from health facilities to define malaria risk at community levels remains poorly defined.

How useful are malaria risk maps at the country level? Perceptions of decision-makers in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo

October 6, 2020 - 12:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ludovica Ghilardi, George Okello, Jayne Webster, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:353, 2 October 2020

Declining malaria prevalence and pressure on external funding have increased the need for efficiency in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Modelled Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) maps are increasingly becoming available and provide information on the epidemiological situation of countries. However, how these maps are understood or used for national malaria planning is rarely explored. In this study, the practices and perceptions of national decision-makers on the utility of malaria risk maps, showing prevalence of parasitaemia or incidence of illness, was investigated.

Evaluating the performance of malaria genetics for inferring changes in transmission intensity using transmission modelling

September 10, 2020 - 08:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Watson OJ, Okell LC, Verity R, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Biol Evol. 2020 Sep 8:msaa225

Substantial progress has been made globally to control malaria, however there is a growing need for innovative new tools to ensure continued progress. One approach is to harness genetic sequencing and accompanying methodological approaches as have been used in the control of other infectious diseases. However, to utilise these methodologies for malaria we first need to extend the methods to capture the complex interactions between parasites, human and vector hosts, and environment, which all impact the level of genetic diversity and relatedness of malaria parasites.

Deconstructing the Impact of Malaria Vector Diversity on Disease Risk

September 5, 2020 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hoi AG, Gilbert B, Mideo N
Reference: 
Am Nat. 2020 Sep;196(3):E61-E70

Recent years have seen significant progress in understanding the impact of host community assemblage on disease risk, yet diversity in disease vectors has rarely been investigated. Using published malaria and mosquito surveys from Kenya, we analyzed the relationship between malaria prevalence and multiple axes of mosquito diversity: abundance, species richness, and composition.

Not Open Access | Microgeographic epidemiology of malaria parasites in an irrigated area of western Kenya by deep amplicon sequencing

August 22, 2020 - 09:14 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hemming-Schroeder E, Zhong D, Kibret S, Chie A, Lee MC, Zhou G, Atieli H, Githeko A, Kazura JW, Yan G
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 17:jiaa520

To improve food security, investments in irrigated agriculture are anticipated to increase throughout Africa. However, the extent that environmental changes from water resource development will impact malaria epidemiology remains unclear.

Assessment of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance among children participating in a therapeutic efficacy study in western Kenya

August 17, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Winnie Chebore, Zhiyong Zhou, Simon Kariuki, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:291, 14 August 2020

Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a major threat to global malaria control efforts. In Africa, Plasmodium falciparum remains susceptible to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), but the emergence of resistant parasites in multiple countries in Southeast Asia and concerns over emergence and/or spread of resistant parasites in Africa warrants continuous monitoring. The World Health Organization recommends that surveillance for molecular markers of resistance be included within therapeutic efficacy studies (TES). The current study assessed molecular markers associated with resistance to Artemether−lumefantrine (AL) and Dihydroartemisinin−piperaquine (DP) from samples collected from children aged 6–59 months enrolled in a TES conducted in Siaya County, western Kenya from 2016 to 2017.

Plasma Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein-2 concentrations in children with malaria infections of differing severity in Kilifi, Kenya

August 10, 2020 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Uyoga S, Wanjiku P, Williams TN, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 9:ciaa1141

Most previous studies support a direct link between total parasite load and the clinical severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections.

Predictors of health workers’ knowledge about artesunate-based severe malaria treatment recommendations in government and faith-based hospitals in Kenya

July 29, 2020 - 10:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beatrice Machini, Dejan Zurovac, Beatrice Amboko, Lucas Malla, Robert W. Snow, Hillary Kipruto & Thomas N. O. Achia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:267, 23 July 2020

Health workers’ knowledge deficiencies about artesunate-based severe malaria treatment recommendations have been reported. However, predictors of the treatment knowledge have not been examined. In this paper, predictors of artesunate-based treatment knowledge among inpatient health workers in two hospital sectors in Kenya are reported.

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