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Caregiver and community perceptions and experiences participating in an infant malaria prevention trial of PfSPZ Vaccine administered by direct venous inoculation: a qualitative study in Siaya County, western Kenya

June 26, 2020 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Florence Achieng, Joseph G. Rosen, Reuben Yego Cherop, Simon Kariuki, Stephen L. Hoffman, Robert Seder, Martina Oneko and Laura C. Steinhardt
Malaria Journal 2020 19:226, 24 June 2020

Despite available control strategies, malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, remain intractable. Malaria vaccination could substantially reduce malaria episodes and deaths. One vaccine candidate is the whole sporozoite PfSPZ Vaccine, consisting of irradiated cryopreserved sporozoites administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI). DVI may be less acceptable than more familiar administration routes, particularly intramuscular. As part of a PfSPZ Vaccine trial among infants in western Kenya, a qualitative study was conducted to explore caregiver and community perceptions of the malaria vaccine trial, including the unique DVI administration procedure.

Malaria infection, disease and mortality among children and adults on the coast of Kenya

June 22, 2020 - 16:34 -- Open Access
Alice Kamau, Grace Mtanje, Robert W. Snow, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:210, 17 June 2020

Malaria transmission has recently fallen in many parts of Africa, but systematic descriptions of infection and disease across all age groups are rare. Here, an epidemiological investigation of parasite prevalence, the incidence of fevers associated with infection, severe hospitalized disease and mortality among children older than 6 months and adults on the Kenyan coast is presented.

Sylvatic Mosquito Diversity in Kenya-Considering Enzootic Ecology of Arboviruses in an Era of Deforestation

June 18, 2020 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Gillian Eastwood, Rosemary C Sang, Joel Lutomiah, Philip Tunge, Scott C Weaver
Insects . 2020 Jun 3;11(6):E342

As new and re-emerging vector-borne diseases are occurring across the world, East Africa represents an interesting location, being the origin of several arboviruses with a history of urbanization and global spread. Rapid expansion of urban populations and alteration of natural habitats creates the opportunity for arboviruses to host-switch from wild, sylvatic hosts or vectors into urban transmission affecting human populations. Although mosquito surveillance regularly takes place in urban areas of Kenya, for example identifying vectors of dengue virus or malaria viruses, little work has been carried out to determine the distribution and abundance of sylvatic vectors. Here, we describe the mosquito vector species and diversity collected at twelve forest habitats of rural Kenya.

Prevalence of pfdhfr and pfdhps mutations in Plasmodium falciparum associated with drug resistance among pregnant women receiving IPTp-SP at Msambweni County Referral Hospital, Kwale County, Kenya

May 25, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Stella Wanjiku Gikunju, Eric L. Agola, Raphael Omusebe Ondondo, Johnson Kinyua, Francis Kimani, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Indu Malhotra, Charles King, Kelvin Thiong’o and Francis Mutuku
Malaria Journal 2020 19:190, 24 May 2020

Prevention and treatment of malaria during pregnancy is crucial in dealing with maternal mortality and adverse fetal outcomes. The World Health Organization recommendation to treat all pregnant women with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care structures was implemented in Kenya in the year 1998, but concerns about its effectiveness in preventing malaria in pregnancy has arisen due to the spread of SP resistant parasites. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SP resistance markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from pregnant women seeking antenatal care at Msambweni County Referral Hospital, located in coastal Kenya, between the year 2013 and 2015.

NOT Open Access | Mean platelet counts are relatively decreased with malaria but relatively increased with endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

May 13, 2020 - 14:54 -- NOT Open Access
Peprah S, Ogwang MD, Mbulaiteye SM, et al.
Br J Haematol. 2020 May 12

Platelet counts are decreased in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is aetiologically linked with endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL). However, the pattern of platelet counts in eBL cases is unknown. We studied platelet counts in 582 eBL cases and 2 248 controls enrolled in a case‐control study in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (2010–2016). Mean platelet counts in controls or eBL cases with or without malaria‐infection in controls versus eBLcases were compared using Student’s t‐test.

Evaluation of human-baited double net trap and human-odour-baited CDC light trap for outdoor host-seeking malaria vector surveillance in Kenya and Ethiopia

May 12, 2020 - 16:31 -- Open Access
Teshome Degefa, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Guofa Zhou, Harrysone Atieli, Andrew K. Githeko and Guiyun Yan
Malaria Journal 2020 19:174, 7 May 2020

Surveillance of outdoor host-seeking malaria vectors is crucial to monitor changes in vector biting behaviour and evaluate the impact of vector control interventions. Human landing catch (HLC) has been considered the most reliable and gold standard surveillance method to estimate human-biting rates. However, it is labour-intensive, and its use is facing an increasing ethical concern due to potential risk of exposure to infectious mosquito bites. Thus, alternative methods are required. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of human-odour-baited CDC light trap (HBLT) and human-baited double net trap (HDNT) for outdoor host-seeking malaria vector surveillance in Kenya and Ethiopia.

Modelling the household cost of paediatric malaria treatment in a rural county in Kenya: do non-user fee payments matter? A partial cost of illness analysis

March 25, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Kodhiambo MO, Oyugi JO, Amugune BK
BMJ Open. 2020 Mar 23;10(3):e033192

The objective of this study was to develop an econometric model for the cost of treatment of paediatric malaria from a patient perspective in a resource scarce rural setting of Homa Bay County, Kenya. We sought to investigate the main contributors as well as the contribution of non-user fee payments to the total household cost of care. Costs were measured from a patient perspective.

Early warning signals of malaria resurgence in Kericho, Kenya

March 23, 2020 - 11:19 -- Open Access
Harris MJ, Hay SI, Drake JM
Biol Lett. 2020 Mar;16(3):20190713

Campaigns to eliminate infectious diseases could be greatly aided by methods for providing early warning signals of resurgence. Theory predicts that as a disease transmission system undergoes a transition from stability at the disease-free equilibrium to sustained transmission, it will exhibit characteristic behaviours known as critical slowing down, referring to the speed at which fluctuations in the number of cases are dampened, for instance the extinction of a local transmission chain after infection from an imported case.

Impact of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS) on entomological indicators of transmission and malaria case burden in Migori County, western Kenya

March 17, 2020 - 16:44 -- Open Access
Abong'o B, Gimnig JE, Oxborough RM, et al.
Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 11;10(1):4518

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a major vector control strategy for malaria prevention. We evaluated the impact of a single round of IRS with the organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS), on entomological and parasitological parameters of malaria in Migori County, western Kenya in 2017, in an area where primary vectors are resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to the IRS compound. Entomological monitoring was conducted by indoor CDC light trap, pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) and human landing collection (HLC) before and after IRS. The residual effect of the insecticide was assessed monthly by exposing susceptible An. gambiae s.s.

Single-nucleotide polymorphism characterization of gametocyte development 1 gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Baringo, Uasin Gishu, and Nandi Counties, Kenya

March 17, 2020 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Bungei JK, Mobegi VA, Nyanjom SG
Heliyon. 2020 Mar 3; 6(3):e03453

Plasmodium falciparum relies on gametocytogenesis to transmit from humans to mosquitoes. Gametocyte development 1 (Pfgdv1) is an upstream activator and epigenetic controller of gametocytogenesis. The emergence of drug resistance is a major public health concern and this requires the development of new strategies that target the transmission of malaria. As a putative drug target, Pfgdv1 has not been characterized to identify its polymorphisms and alleles under selection and how such polymorphisms influence protein structure.


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