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Kenya

Modelling the household cost of paediatric malaria treatment in a rural county in Kenya: do non-user fee payments matter? A partial cost of illness analysis

March 25, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kodhiambo MO, Oyugi JO, Amugune BK
Reference: 
BMJ Open. 2020 Mar 23;10(3):e033192

The objective of this study was to develop an econometric model for the cost of treatment of paediatric malaria from a patient perspective in a resource scarce rural setting of Homa Bay County, Kenya. We sought to investigate the main contributors as well as the contribution of non-user fee payments to the total household cost of care. Costs were measured from a patient perspective.

Early warning signals of malaria resurgence in Kericho, Kenya

March 23, 2020 - 11:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Harris MJ, Hay SI, Drake JM
Reference: 
Biol Lett. 2020 Mar;16(3):20190713

Campaigns to eliminate infectious diseases could be greatly aided by methods for providing early warning signals of resurgence. Theory predicts that as a disease transmission system undergoes a transition from stability at the disease-free equilibrium to sustained transmission, it will exhibit characteristic behaviours known as critical slowing down, referring to the speed at which fluctuations in the number of cases are dampened, for instance the extinction of a local transmission chain after infection from an imported case.

Impact of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS) on entomological indicators of transmission and malaria case burden in Migori County, western Kenya

March 17, 2020 - 16:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abong'o B, Gimnig JE, Oxborough RM, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 11;10(1):4518

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a major vector control strategy for malaria prevention. We evaluated the impact of a single round of IRS with the organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS), on entomological and parasitological parameters of malaria in Migori County, western Kenya in 2017, in an area where primary vectors are resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to the IRS compound. Entomological monitoring was conducted by indoor CDC light trap, pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) and human landing collection (HLC) before and after IRS. The residual effect of the insecticide was assessed monthly by exposing susceptible An. gambiae s.s.

Single-nucleotide polymorphism characterization of gametocyte development 1 gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Baringo, Uasin Gishu, and Nandi Counties, Kenya

March 17, 2020 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bungei JK, Mobegi VA, Nyanjom SG
Reference: 
Heliyon. 2020 Mar 3; 6(3):e03453

Plasmodium falciparum relies on gametocytogenesis to transmit from humans to mosquitoes. Gametocyte development 1 (Pfgdv1) is an upstream activator and epigenetic controller of gametocytogenesis. The emergence of drug resistance is a major public health concern and this requires the development of new strategies that target the transmission of malaria. As a putative drug target, Pfgdv1 has not been characterized to identify its polymorphisms and alleles under selection and how such polymorphisms influence protein structure.

Resting behaviour of malaria vectors in highland and lowland sites of western Kenya: Implication on malaria vector control measures

March 2, 2020 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Machani MG, Ochomo E, Amimo F, Kosgei J, Munga S, Zhou G, Githeko AK, Yan G, Afrane YA
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(2): e0224718

Understanding the interactions between increased insecticide resistance and resting behaviour patterns of malaria mosquitoes is important for planning of adequate vector control. This study was designed to investigate the resting behavior, host preference and rates of Plasmodium falciparum infection in relation to insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in different ecologies of western Kenya.

NOT Open Access | Risk factors for Burkitt lymphoma in East African children and minors: A case-control study in malaria-endemic regions in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya

February 22, 2020 - 16:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Peprah S, Ogwang MD, Kerchan P, Reynolds SJ, Tenge CN, Were PA, Kuremu RT, Wekesa WN, Sumba PO, Masalu N, Kawira E, Magatti J, Kinyera T, Otim I, Legason ID, Nabalende H, Dhudha H, Ally H, Genga IO, Mumia M, Ayers LW, Pfeiffer RM, Biggar RJ, Bhatia K, Goedert JJ, Mbulaiteye SM
Reference: 
Int J Cancer. 2020 Feb 15;146(4):953-969

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common childhood cancer in sub‐Saharan African countries, however, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and none attempted enrolling cases from multiple countries. We therefore conducted a population‐based case–control study of eBL in children aged 0–15 years old in six regions in Northern Uganda, Northern Tanzania and Western Kenya, enrolling 862 suspected cases and 2,934 population controls (response rates 98.5–100%), and processing ~40,000 vials of samples using standardized protocols.

Effect of group versus individual antenatal care on uptake of intermittent prophylactic treatment of malaria in pregnancy and related malaria outcomes in Nigeria and Kenya: analysis of data from a pragmatic cluster randomized trial

February 3, 2020 - 17:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lisa Noguchi, Lindsay Grenier, Oniyire Adetiloye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:51, 29 January 2020

Every year, malaria in pregnancy contributes to approximately 20% of stillbirths in sub-Saharan Africa and 10,000 maternal deaths globally. Most eligible pregnant women do not receive the minimum three recommended doses of intermittent preventive treatment with Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). The objective of this analysis was to determine whether women randomized to group antenatal care (G-ANC) versus standard antenatal care (ANC) differed in IPTp uptake and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use.

Characterizing the Spatial Determinants and Prevention of Malaria in Kenya

December 23, 2019 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gopal S, Ma Y, Xin C, Pitts J, Were L
Reference: 
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5078

The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 3 is to ensure health and well-being for all at all ages with a specific target to end malaria by 2030. Aligned with this goal, the primary objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of utilizing local spatial variations to uncover the statistical relationships between malaria incidence rate and environmental and behavioral factors across the counties of Kenya.

Producing routine malaria data: an exploration of the micro-practices and processes shaping routine malaria data quality in frontline health facilities in Kenya

December 17, 2019 - 16:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
George Okello, Sassy Molyneux, Scholastica Zakayo, Rene Gerrets and Caroline Jones
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:420, 16 December 2019

Routine health information systems can provide near real-time data for malaria programme management, monitoring and evaluation, and surveillance. There are widespread concerns about the quality of the malaria data generated through routine information systems in many low-income countries. However, there has been little careful examination of micro-level practices of data collection which are central to the production of routine malaria data.

Gametocyte clearance in children, from western Kenya, with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria after artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment

December 10, 2019 - 08:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Omondi P, Burugu M, Matoke-Muhia D, Too E, Nambati EA, Chege W, Musyoka KB, Thiongo K, Otinga M, Muregi F, Kimani F.
Reference: 
Malar J. 2019 Dec 4; 18(1):398

The efficacy and safety of artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) against asexual parasites population has been documented. However, the effect of these anti-malarials on sexual parasites is still less clear. Gametocyte clearance following treatment is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts; therefore, the study sought to determine trends in gametocyte clearance after AL or DP treatment in children from a malaria-endemic site in Kenya.

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