Vector control is an essential component in prevention and control of malaria in malaria endemic areas. Insecticide treated nets is one of the standard tools recommended for malaria vector control. The objective of the study was to determine physical integrity and insecticidal potency of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) used in control of malaria vector in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.
In order to improve our understanding of the fundamental limits of core interventions and guide efforts based on prioritization and identification of effective/novel interventions with great potentials to interrupt persistent malaria transmission in the context of high vector control coverage, the drivers of persistent disease transmission were investigated in three eco-epidemiological settings; forested areas in Cameroon, coastal area in Kenya and highland areas in Ethiopia.
Repeated exposure to malaria infections could protect against symptomatic progression, as people develop adaptive immunity to infections acquired over time.
The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of mosquito populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance can inform the development of effective and site-specific strategies for resistance prevention and management. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from coastal Kenya.
Interferon (IFN)- λ4, a type III IFN, production is controlled by a dinucleotide frameshift variant (rs368234815-dG/TT) within the first exon of the IFNL4 gene. Carriers of the IFNL4-dG allele but not the IFNL4-TT allele are able to produce the IFN-λ4 protein. Patients with hepatitis C virus that do not produce the IFN-λ4 protein have higher rates of viral clearance suggesting a potential inhibitory role of IFN-λ4 in liver-tropic infections.
In Plasmodium falciparum infection, clinical conditions such as anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis are common. Mutation in haemoglobin sub-unit beta gene (HBB) may be a genetic factor responsible for these haematological changes during infection. However, the contributions of the carriage of different HBB genotypes on these changes remain largely unknown.
Current models for analysing malaria serology data are limited by the need to dichotomize continuous antibody measurements, as well as strict assumptions about malaria transmission dynamics.
Approximately 70% of Kenya’s population is at risk for malaria. The core vector control methods in Kenya are insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying, with supplementary larval source management. In 2015, 21% of ITNs were accessed through the private retail sector. Despite the private sector role in supplying mosquito control products (MCPs), there is little evidence on the availability, sales trends, and consumer preferences for MCPs other than ITNs. This study, a component of a larger research programme focused on evaluating a spatial repellent intervention class for mosquito-borne disease control, addressed this evidence gap on the role of the private sector in supplying MCPs.
Integrated vector management (IVM) is defined as a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control. The IVM approach is based on the premise that effective control of vectors and the diseases they transmit is not the sole preserve of the health sector. It requires the collaboration and participation of communities and other stakeholders in public and private sectors. Community participation is key to the success of IVM implementation at the local level.
Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent powerful tools for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. The success of these interventions relies on their capability to inhibit indoor feeding and resting of malaria mosquitoes. This study sought to understand the interaction of insecticide resistance with indoor and outdoor resting behavioral responses of malaria vectors from Western Kenya.