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Kenya

Malaria micro-stratification using routine surveillance data in Western Kenya

January 13, 2021 - 08:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Victor A. Alegana, Laurissa Suiyanka, Peter M. Macharia, Grace Ikahu-Muchangi and Robert W. Snow
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:22, 7 January 2021

There is an increasing need for finer spatial resolution data on malaria risk to provide micro-stratification to guide sub-national strategic plans. Here, spatial-statistical techniques are used to exploit routine data to depict sub-national heterogeneities in test positivity rate (TPR) for malaria among patients attending health facilities in Kenya.

Efficacy of Artemisinin-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria after more than a decade of its use in Kenya

January 5, 2021 - 14:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kishoyian G, Njagi ENM, Orinda GO, Kimani FT, Thiongo K, Matoke-Muhia D
Reference: 
Epidemiol Infect. 2021 Jan 5:1-24

The  resistance  of Plasmodium  falciparum to  antimalarial  drugs  remains  a  major impairment  in the treatment  and  eradication of malaria globally. Following the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), there have been reports of delayed parasite clearance. In Kenya, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study sought  to  assess  the  efficacy  of  AL  after  a  decade  of use as the  preferred  method  of  managing  malarial  infections in Kenya. We assessed clinical and parasitological esponses of children under five years between May and November 2015 in Chulaimbo   sub-County,   Kisumu,   Kenya.

Coverage outcomes (effects), costs, cost-effectiveness, and equity of two combinations of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution channels in Kenya: a two-arm study under operational conditions

December 9, 2020 - 07:42 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Worrall E, Were V, Matope A, Gama E, Olewe J, Mwambi D, Desai M, Kariuki S, Buff AM, Niessen LW
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Dec 7;20(1):1870

Malaria-endemic countries distribute long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through combined channels with ambitious, universal coverage (UC) targets. Kenya has used eight channels with variable results. To inform national decision-makers, this two-arm study compares coverage (effects), costs, cost-effectiveness, and equity of two combinations of LLIN distribution channels in Kenya.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and susceptibility to childhood diseases in Kilifi, Kenya

December 8, 2020 - 10:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Uyoga S, Macharia AW, Ndila CM, Nyutu G, Shebe M, Awuondo KO, Mturi N, Peshu N, Tsofa B, Scott JAG, Maitland K, Williams TN
Reference: 
Blood Adv. 2020 Dec 8;4(23):5942-5950

Few previous studies have reported the effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficiency on child health in Africa. We conducted a case-control study in which cases (n = 6829) were children admitted, for any reason, to Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, while controls (n = 10 179) were recruited from the surrounding community. Cases were subclassified based on their clinical and laboratory findings at admission.

Efficacy of extended release formulations of Natular™ (spinosad) against larvae and adults of Anopheles mosquitoes in western Kenya

November 28, 2020 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John E. Gimnig, Maurice Ombok, Nabie Bayoh, Derrick Mathias, Eric Ochomo, William Jany and Edward D. Walker
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:436, 26 November 2020

Larval source management is recommended as a supplementary vector control measure for the prevention of malaria. Among the concerns related to larviciding is the feasibility of implementation in tropical areas with large numbers of habitats and the need for frequent application. Formulated products of spinosad that are designed to be effective for several weeks may mitigate some of these concerns.

Intermittent screening and treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: implementation feasibility in a routine healthcare system setting in western Keny

November 28, 2020 - 16:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jenny Hill, Peter Ouma, Seth Oluoch, Jane Bruce, Simon Kariuki, Meghna Desai & Jayne Webster
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:433, 25 November 2020

Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for preventing malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate-to-high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to increasing parasite resistance to SP, research on alternative strategies is a priority. The study assessed the implementation feasibility of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) in the second and third trimester at antenatal care (ANC) with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment of positive cases with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) compared to IPTp-SP in western Kenya.

Association between haematological parameters and sickle cell genotypes in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria resident in Kisumu County in Western Kenya

November 28, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kosiyo P, Otieno W, Gitaka J, Munde EO, Ouma C
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 25;20(1):887

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disorder due to point mutation in the β-globin gene resulting in substitution of Valine for Glutamic acid. The SCD is prevalent in P. falciparum endemic regions such as western Kenya. Carriage of different sickle cell genotypes may influence haematological parameter during malaria. Children resident in malaria holoendemic regions suffer more from malaria-related complications and this is moderated by the presence of the SCD. In the current study, we determined the association between sickle cell genotypes and haematological parameters in children with P. falciparum malaria resident in Kisumu County in Western Kenya.

Ecological drivers of genetic connectivity for African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis

November 19, 2020 - 13:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hemming-Schroeder E, Zhong D, Machani M, Nguyen H, Thong S, Kahindi S, Mbogo C, Atieli H, Githeko A, Lehmann T, Kazura JW, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 17;10(1):19946

Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis are major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of how geographical factors drive the dispersal and gene flow of malaria vectors can help in combatting insecticide resistance spread and planning new vector control interventions.

NOT Open Access | Association of Malnutrition with Subsequent Malaria Parasitemia among Children Younger than Three years in Kenya: A Secondary Data Analysis of the Asembo Bay Cohort Study

November 18, 2020 - 12:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Donovan CV, McElroy P, Adair L, Pence BW, Oloo AJ, Lal A, Bloland P, Nahlen B, Juliano JJ, Meshnick S
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 16

Malaria and malnutrition remain primary causes of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years in Africa. Studies investigating the association between malnutrition and subsequent malaria outcomes are inconsistent. We studied the effects of malnutrition on incidence and prevalence of malaria parasitemia in data from a cohort studied in the 1990s.

Adoption of evidence-based global policies at the national level: intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and first trimester treatment in Kenya, Malawi, Mali and The Gambia

November 14, 2020 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Webster J, Hoyt J, Hill J, et al.
Reference: 
Health Policy Plan. 2020 Nov 12:czaa132

In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its policy on intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). A global recommendation to revise the WHO policy on the treatment of malaria in the first trimester is under review. We conducted a retrospective study of the national policy adoption process for revised IPTp-SP dosing in four sub-Saharan African countries.

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