Despite available control strategies, malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, remain intractable. Malaria vaccination could substantially reduce malaria episodes and deaths. One vaccine candidate is the whole sporozoite PfSPZ Vaccine, consisting of irradiated cryopreserved sporozoites administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI). DVI may be less acceptable than more familiar administration routes, particularly intramuscular. As part of a PfSPZ Vaccine trial among infants in western Kenya, a qualitative study was conducted to explore caregiver and community perceptions of the malaria vaccine trial, including the unique DVI administration procedure.
Malaria transmission has recently fallen in many parts of Africa, but systematic descriptions of infection and disease across all age groups are rare. Here, an epidemiological investigation of parasite prevalence, the incidence of fevers associated with infection, severe hospitalized disease and mortality among children older than 6 months and adults on the Kenyan coast is presented.
As new and re-emerging vector-borne diseases are occurring across the world, East Africa represents an interesting location, being the origin of several arboviruses with a history of urbanization and global spread. Rapid expansion of urban populations and alteration of natural habitats creates the opportunity for arboviruses to host-switch from wild, sylvatic hosts or vectors into urban transmission affecting human populations. Although mosquito surveillance regularly takes place in urban areas of Kenya, for example identifying vectors of dengue virus or malaria viruses, little work has been carried out to determine the distribution and abundance of sylvatic vectors. Here, we describe the mosquito vector species and diversity collected at twelve forest habitats of rural Kenya.
Prevention and treatment of malaria during pregnancy is crucial in dealing with maternal mortality and adverse fetal outcomes. The World Health Organization recommendation to treat all pregnant women with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care structures was implemented in Kenya in the year 1998, but concerns about its effectiveness in preventing malaria in pregnancy has arisen due to the spread of SP resistant parasites. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SP resistance markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from pregnant women seeking antenatal care at Msambweni County Referral Hospital, located in coastal Kenya, between the year 2013 and 2015.
Platelet counts are decreased in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is aetiologically linked with endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL). However, the pattern of platelet counts in eBL cases is unknown. We studied platelet counts in 582 eBL cases and 2 248 controls enrolled in a case‐control study in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (2010–2016). Mean platelet counts in controls or eBL cases with or without malaria‐infection in controls versus eBLcases were compared using Student’s t‐test.
Surveillance of outdoor host-seeking malaria vectors is crucial to monitor changes in vector biting behaviour and evaluate the impact of vector control interventions. Human landing catch (HLC) has been considered the most reliable and gold standard surveillance method to estimate human-biting rates. However, it is labour-intensive, and its use is facing an increasing ethical concern due to potential risk of exposure to infectious mosquito bites. Thus, alternative methods are required. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of human-odour-baited CDC light trap (HBLT) and human-baited double net trap (HDNT) for outdoor host-seeking malaria vector surveillance in Kenya and Ethiopia.
The objective of this study was to develop an econometric model for the cost of treatment of paediatric malaria from a patient perspective in a resource scarce rural setting of Homa Bay County, Kenya. We sought to investigate the main contributors as well as the contribution of non-user fee payments to the total household cost of care. Costs were measured from a patient perspective.
Campaigns to eliminate infectious diseases could be greatly aided by methods for providing early warning signals of resurgence. Theory predicts that as a disease transmission system undergoes a transition from stability at the disease-free equilibrium to sustained transmission, it will exhibit characteristic behaviours known as critical slowing down, referring to the speed at which fluctuations in the number of cases are dampened, for instance the extinction of a local transmission chain after infection from an imported case.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a major vector control strategy for malaria prevention. We evaluated the impact of a single round of IRS with the organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS), on entomological and parasitological parameters of malaria in Migori County, western Kenya in 2017, in an area where primary vectors are resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to the IRS compound. Entomological monitoring was conducted by indoor CDC light trap, pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) and human landing collection (HLC) before and after IRS. The residual effect of the insecticide was assessed monthly by exposing susceptible An. gambiae s.s.
Plasmodium falciparum relies on gametocytogenesis to transmit from humans to mosquitoes. Gametocyte development 1 (Pfgdv1) is an upstream activator and epigenetic controller of gametocytogenesis. The emergence of drug resistance is a major public health concern and this requires the development of new strategies that target the transmission of malaria. As a putative drug target, Pfgdv1 has not been characterized to identify its polymorphisms and alleles under selection and how such polymorphisms influence protein structure.