The selected sample processing procedure can be used to identify field-collected Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium, in a short period of time, with a minimal amount of tissue and without the need of an expert mosquito taxonomist.
This is the first report of An. rivulorum-like south of Zambia, and essentially extends the range of this species from West Africa down to South Africa.
The present study reflects the importance and feasibility of COI and ITS2 genetic markers in identifying anophelines and their sibling species, and the significance of integrated systematic approach in mosquito taxonomy.
This work provides first time evidence of Anopheles diversity in several areas of Botswana.
In the highest malaria areas of Colombia, 13 Anopheles species and four new lineages were found, which highlights the need for updating the species distribution.