4 years ago, a heated debate concerning malaria prophylaxis had been triggered on www.malariaworld.org. It concerned the very promising results obtained by Dr Patrick Ogwang, with an herbal product called Artavol, he had developed with the Ministry of Health in Uganda. Peer reviewed papers and press releases are easily found on internet.
Pierre Lutgen's blog
Oxidative stress as cause for the death of parasites was a major field of research some 30 years ago.
Many Artemisia plants are called wormwood, because for thousands of years they have been used against worms. There have been some recent trials on animals, but most studies are in vitro.
Artemisia annua came under the spotlight during the Vietnam War. Viêt-Cong who operated in swamps and rain forests lost more soldiers by mosquito bites than by American bullets. Ho Chi Min turned to China for help. Researchers at the Chinese Institute of Material Medicine had found a region of China that reported no malaria cases, and when they investigated, they discovered that its people drank a decoction of Artemisia annua at the first symptoms of malaria.
Sugar feeding is a fundamental characteristic of mosquito life. It is the basic food of adult mosquitoes, as floral nectar or honeydew. It is the only nutrient consumed by males and probably the more common one for females, even if they need vertebrate blood to produce eggs. Malaria parasites also are dependent on glucose as a nutrient source. As Plasmodium has no capacity to store energy in the form of glycogen they rely entirely on an exogenous supply of glucose. The infected erythrocyte exhibits a substantial increase in its permeability to low molecular weight sugar.
“All things are poison and not without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison” Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, also known as Paracelsus (1493–1541).
Preliminary note: In this document we will use indiscriminately the terms caryophyllene, alpha-caryophyllene, beta-caryophyllene, trans-caryopyllene, caryophyllene oxide, E-BCP
A press release from Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute raised a lot of concern. Based on a scientific paper published in Nature
Magnus Manske, Olivo Miotto, Susana Campino, Sarah Auburn, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Gareth Maslen, Jack O’Brien, Abdoulaye Djimde, Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum diversity in natural infections by deep sequencing. Nature 487, 375–379, 19 July 2012doi:10.1038/nature11174
Studies from 2009 already asked the same question
It is generally or it was believed that quinine is prophylactic. But several papers have questionned this believe and a large scale clinical trial from India in 1918 demonstrated that it is not the case and that large quantities of quinine have been swallowed by a large number of people without providing protection against the infection nor significantly reducing transmission
G Waugh Scott. Quinine prophylaxis in malaria. Brit Med Journal, 1918, May 11th.
Several scientific papers have disappeared from internet.
For example the clinical trials with Artemisia annua in RD Congo from 2000 (attachment 1)
(M.S. Mueller , I.B. Karhagomba , H.M. Hirt , E. Wemakor. The potential of Artemisia annua L. as a locally produced remedy for malaria in the tropics: agricultural, chemical and clinical aspects. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73 (2000) 487–493)
and clinical trials 2002 (attachment 2)