Gametocytes are loaded with hemozoin resulting from hemoglobulin consumption. Their voracious need of this food may explain why they hide in the bone marrow where they find a large supply of young red blood cells generated by erythropoiesis. Malaria leads to hemolysis and anemia, often severe, and this triggers and amplifies erythropoiesis. Over the years it became evident that not only intravenous artesunate often causes hemolysis, but also ACT therapy.
Pierre Lutgen's blog
From prehistoric times man has looked to wild and domestic animals for sources of herbal remedies. Both folklore and living examples provide accounts of how medicinal plants were obtained by observing the behaviour of animals. Animals too learn about the details of self-medication by watching each other. To date, perhaps the most striking scientific studies of animal self-medication have been made on the African great apes.
This document was submitted to us by Jerôme Munyangi, who run the successful large scale clinical trials against malaria with Artemisia plants in Maniema, RDC.
(Jerome Munyangi et al., Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra tea infusions vs. artesunate-amodiaquine(ASAQ) in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a large scale, doubleblind, randomized clinical trialPhytomedicine, 2019, 57, 49-56)
Our association IFBV-BELHERB shares his concern for his African sisters and brothers. They should not be used as guinea pigs by Bigpharma.
WHO forecasts an alarming increase of diabetes in Africa, from 7 020 000 cases in 2000 to18 234 000 cases in 2030, with a high death toll if no efficient and affordable cure is found.
Another important property of Artemisia plants. Might help us to better understand the high efficacy against tropical diseases. Just published in PPIJ! See pdf attached
And as Artemisia afra is endemic in so many African countries and used since generations as traditional medicine against malaria no further pre-clinical trials are required as per WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1
This traditional use is recognized by WHO in the October 2019 statement WHO-CDS-GMP-2019.14
For figures see attached pdf
There are many anecdotic reports indicating that including stems and twigs with dried Artemisia leaves augments the power of the infusion. Operators of a palm oil plant in Burundi only drink infusions made with stems and stay malaria free.
Dried Artemisia annua herb of Chinese origin and sold in European pharmacies contains at least 70 % of stems.
Artemisias are used since millenaries and never any toxic effect was noticed. If there was one it would have been highlighted by Bigparma because the plant competes with their pills.
The WHO guidelines state that, if the herbal product has been traditionally used without demonstrated harm, no specific restrictive action should be undertaken. In this case WHO maintains the position that there is no requirement for pre-clinical toxicity testing. Pre-clinical toxicity testing is only required for new medicinal herbal products which contain herbs of no traditional history of use.
The French periodical PARIS MATCH published an extensive document on the fight against malaria with Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra. And the dubious role WHO plays.
Amiodarone which is used to control irregular heartbeat also has a protective effect in malaria. It triggers eryptosis and the clearance of malaria infected erythrocytes. In Plasmodium berghei infected mice amiodarone injections increased the survival. It is interesting to note that amiodarone is also active against other tropical diseases like Chagas or Leishmaniasis, both in vitro and in vivo, probably by disrupting the parasites' Ca(2+) homeostasis,
Vaccines blocking the invasion of malaria sporozoites failed so far, after 30 years of efforts, millions spent, and disastrous human clinical trials. The efforts and the millions are now focused on vaccines blocking transmission by gametocytes. The results are not yet encouraging but the updated Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap foresees that there will be a TBV vaccine available in 2030. The update was necessary as the program launched by WHO in 2000 ( TDR/RBM/MAL/VAC/2000.1) has not yet progressed very far.