IN 30 SECONDS: Mosquitoes spread diseases to millions of people around the world, yet they remain poorly understood by most. Of particular interest among these diseases is malaria in Africa, transmitted predominantly by four cruel members of the Anopheles family. This article is an abridged illustration of the many biological intrigues in the lives of malaria mosquitoes. The more we understand it, the closer we will get to “zero malaria”. And we must do so with as few deaths as possible
Oftentimes when referring to global health crises around the globe, the circulating mindset whether in media or conversation is that if burdened communities knew how to protect themselves better, they would not suffer as extensively as they do. My time in Kigali, Rwanda taught me differently.
By now, the world is gasping together at the roll-out of a vaccine to prevent malaria among children. The origin of this shock, however, is what varies. For some, the amazement comes from the prospect of a novel preventative tool that sounds like it will be a leading soldier in the fight against malaria. Still, others who know of its low protection rate (about 39%) gasp in shock that this tool is being used at all.
IN 30 SECONDS: There is no doubt that bed nets, insecticides, medicines and diagnostics will deliver significant successes against malaria in the short-term. But as major international partners continue prioritizing the commodity-based approach, African governments should be building the necessary resilience in affected communities. Countries should ensure safe houses and physical environments so that exposure to mosquito bites is minimized, strengthen health systems to identify and treat new malaria cases, expand access to health education in schools and households, and improve household economies and food security so that competing priorities are addressed. This needs to be a long-term strategy, paid for by domestic funding, subsidies, tax rebates or other innovative financing mechanisms – for example a ten-dollar malaria levy paid by international travelers visiting endemic countries. This way, the affected countries can better avoid malaria deaths and sickness, or rebounds of transmission, which currently place such a strain on national health outcomes and development.
Dear Experts across the world,
I looking out for a way to quantify the IRS in field itself without the filter papers being sent to the central laboratories for testing. Does anyone have got an idea how to do this? The information will be greatly useful for me to try it in India.
Attention is drawn to the following three publications that are relevant to the preparation of manuscripts on malaria:
Markus, M.B. 2019. Plasmodium – Yet More Don’ts. Trends in Parasitology 35 (2): 101–102.
McFadden, G.I. 2019. Plasmodium – More Don’ts. Trends in Parasitology 35 (1): 4–6.
The Greater Mekong Sub-region has made remarkable progress towards eliminating malaria in recent years, but efforts are now faltering in some areas. The development of tools to control forest-based transmission is taking too long and efforts to control malaria amongst high-risk mobile people are failing. If countries are to meet their elimination targets and prevent the spread of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria, urgent and radical changes will be required.
An article on vivax malarial recurrences was highlighted in the "Global Malaria News" section of last week's MalariaWorld Newsletter. Below (in the next paragraph) is a relevant explanation concerning the article (http://theconversation.com/why-does-malaria-recur-how-pieces-of-the-puzz...):
Genetically engineered mosquitoes are due to be released in Burkina Faso, Mali and Uganda by the Target Malaria research consortium. Target Malaria is a consortium of research institutes that receives core funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Silicon Valley companies and the Pentagon. In Burkina researchers recently secured government approval to release up to 10,000 sterile male Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.
The amount of time that passes between a symptomatic vivax malarial episode and a subsequent recurrence has in the past often been regarded as an indication as to whether the recurrence is a relapse (hypnozoite origin) or a recrudescence (merozoite origin). It should be noted that in the light of new knowledge and understanding, the time factor is not a valid criterion. (Link to first paper). (Link to second paper).
The government of India is playing efficient role in developing the nation’s framework at any instance. Moreover, in the healthcare industry it makes so many innovations for minimizing the negative effective of disease. Furthermore, malaria is the main public health problem in the numerous states of India which majorly includes North East segment. The government of India is projecting so many programs and projects which are very much useful for the general public as in these programs government spread awareness related to the malaria and other related viruses.
i have lived here in Tanzania for almost 18 years now. i was in Kenya prior to that working with pyrethrum as an effective repellent and killer.since coming to Tanzania i have tried and tested so many formulas on the market as well as created some of my own. at one stage i was working with the head of the Malaria campaign here Alex Mwita based at the world health organisation offices in Dar es Salaam. when i came here early 2000 i found breeding grounds were the biggest issue as everywhere there was standing water as well as rivers with steady corners allowing breeding.
We talk about asymptomatic, submicroscopic plasmodial infections as potentially being a threat to the elimination of malaria. This is, of course, partly because such infections are not normally treated; especially not in rural endemic areas where laboratory facilities are limited. An aggravation of the situation is when parasitaemias are so low that they cannot be detected by molecular diagnosis (where available) either. But obstacles to elimination are probably even greater than has been realized.
Yesterday, August 20th, was World Mosquito Day, which may seemingly sound like a day to honor the mosquito. Yet, more often than not, the narrative that permeates posts and notifications for this awareness day details of how bothersome the mosquito is, how undesirable, and how evil. Communicators may knowingly or unknowingly paint a portrait of a mosquito who intentionally picks up pathogens involved with spreading malaria, Zika, West Nile, or another, then buzzes deviously around spreading them to any and all unsuspecting humans like pollinating honey bees.
The two links below did not come up in the original "Comment" on a paper but should do so in this "Blog" version, which appears in full below. It was speculated in detail for the first time in two recent publications (particularly the second one) that in addition to a hypnozoite origin of relapse-like vivax recurrences, parasites in bone marrow might be a source. (Link to first paper). (Link to second paper).
Apart from at the Panama Canal, does anyone know where malaria control was attempted before 1922?
As the first of its kind, the World Malaria Congress was a stunning success. The Congress organizing committee should be very proud. Grant you, it was not perfect, but first times seldom are. There was a certain rush in getting things done, an eagerness to bring to bed groups that should have had a coffee and a walk in the park beforehand in order to get to know each other's language and idiosyncrasies, likes and dislikes. But the reality of it is that things got done. People engaged with each other and held productive discussions on sensitive topics.
The Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (CIDG) has published several systematic reviews of malaria interventions which may be of interest to Malaria World members. Each of the reviews are open access and are accessible via the Cochrane Library:
Managing Editor, CIDG
UPDATE COMMENTARY: Acquisition of novel insights has been taking place (reflected especially in 2018 reports) in relation to where plasmodial parasites go in the mammalian body. This new understanding has led to the hypnozoite hypothesis of relapse in malaria becoming partly out of date insofar as it is now a theory that is (in the way it has been applied since 1980) too restrictive. To elucidate:
In this study, we analysed observations of resistance levels in some of the most important malaria vector species sampled from 1183 locations spanning 38 African countries. If mosquitoes show cross-resistance to multiple insecticide types, then the number of insecticides that remain effective is limited. Therefore, our research looked for evidence of common patterns of resistance amongst the different types of insecticides that are most important in mosquito control programs.
Was P.G. Shute’s “X Body” the same plasmodial stage that is now called a “hypnozoite”? The short answer is “No”. The malariologist who has just put this question to me has suggested that the whole reply (see below) be made available in the MalariaWorld Newsletter, considering the current topicality of the enigmatic hypnozoite; particularly in regard to the concept of malaria eradication.
As shown by the record of historical events listed in Table 1 in a recent review of biological concepts in recurrent vivax malaria, the question of a hypnozoite-independent, non-circulating origin(s) of recurrences was first raised approximately 7 years ago. (Link to the paper and Table 1 [click here]). More specifically, parasites in bone marrow as a possible contributing source are discussed in this 2018 article, the matter having initially been debated in a 2017 publication cited therein.
As of April 2018, there are 4 PubMed articles that propose the immediate evaluation of T-REX for the prevention of malaria deaths (under author name "JAJOSKY"). These proposals represent 4 (malaria-specific) cell-therapy variations of the special-donor concept highlighted by the successful (HIV-specific) cell-therapy administered to "the Berlin patient."
Dear MIM Conference Attendees,
As your travel this weekend to Dakar, Senegal remember to come prepared to be a member of the MIM Society. It is promising to be a wonderful opportunity for young and old seasoned and burgeoning researchers to take advantage of the benefits of membership.
Dear MIM participants,
For those who have sent their itineraries as requested, hostesses holding a MIM sign will meet you at the airport, assist you as needed and guide you towards the shuttle buses provided for the transfer from the airport to the hotel where you will stay.
We kindly request to those who have not yet sent their travel itinerary to do so as soon as possible.
Please find below the shuttle timetable:
7th MIM Pan African Malaria Conference
Providing the LINKs to strengthen the use of data for malaria decision making in sub-Saharan Africa (Symposium 16)
Malaria Consortium is delighted to be at the Multilateral Initiative Malaria Conference where key stakeholders will reflect upon two decades of progress and challenges in the fight against malaria, and identify new opportunities to sustain the gains made.