As global attention and funds continue to shift towards addressing the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence rate of other life-threatening diseases like malaria could begin to surge if left to do so.
Only a "few" hypnozoites occur in patients who have Plasmodium vivax infections, compared to the large, non-circulating merozoite biomass that is now known to be present.
Therefore, to readily ascribe P. vivax malarial recurrences to hypnozoite activation, as is currently common practice, is no longer appropriate without good reasons for doing so. Forget about what you were taught at university in this context and keep an open mind.
As is well known, long-term malarial recurrences are a feature of human infections caused by species of Plasmodium. The frequency of recurrence varies. In P. falciparum malaria, long-term recurrence is rare, but not (contrary to popular belief) non-existent. P. malariae [Pm] and P. vivax [Pv] only will be considered below; and with reference to only the bone marrow as a site of parasite occurrence.
The quality of literature on malaria occasionally leaves something to be desired, with lack of attention to detail in one way or another being evident. Note the following selected matters:
WHO is continuously monitoring and responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. This Q&A will be updated as more is known about the novel coronavirus, how it spreads and how it is affecting malaria responses worldwide.
Read all questions and answers here: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question...
Malariologists have recently reiterated, in more than one paper, the notion that the non-bloodstream origin of Plasmodium vivax malarial recurrence is both hypnozoites (a term coined by me long ago ) and merozoites, not hypnozoites only. It has happened without any acknowledgement relating to the existing literature on the subject. Although the glaring omissions might have been inadvertent, let us nevertheless not become confused as to the background here. What needs to be pointed out is that this is not an original (new) idea.
World is currently experiencing a new pandemic for which no curative treatment is available. At this time, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has reached 183 countries and has caused several deaths. Many reports presented chloroquine (CQ) and hydrochloroquine (HCQ), former drugs used against malaria, as the best current choice to fight this terrible disease.
The progression to schizont formation of individual activated hypnozoites has been reported for the first time. This means that it is probably no longer appropriate to use the words "theory" and "hypothesis" when talking about hypnozoites in relation to malarial relapse. The link to the important publication concerned (by Voorberg-van der Wel et al.) is:
Attention is drawn to a paper (by G. Franken, J. Richter, and A. Labisch) which points out, quite rightly, that it would be appropriate for more research on aspects of the life cycle of Plasmodium species that infect humans to be carried out, using modern techniques. The current "liver and blood" concept of the life cycle should not be regarded as the final "word" on the subject.
Link to the publication:
Since 15 years, the Université des Montagnes is at the forefront of research and clinical trials demonstrating the astonishing efficacy of Artemisia plants against malaria. The local population of Cameroon has become enthusiastic about this cheap and efficient weapon against the malaria scourge. Despite the billions invested in bednets and drugs by Bill Gates, Bigpharma, WHO and France the disease has seen a dramatic increase in Cameroon over the recent years. This was recognized by the French ambassador at a meeting at the Hilton-Yaoundé on April 17th 2019.
In relation to some biological and epidemiological implications of the killing of Plasmodium vivax by hydrogen peroxide, discussed in a November 2019 publication (click on the first link below and, in turn, click on the "Free Download" link that comes up in a Tweet), see the comments in the MalariaWorld Newsletter by Pierre Lutgen concerning hydrogen peroxide. Find his blog via the second link provided below.
A link in the "Comment" on a new P. vivax publication listed in the MalariaWorld Newsletter this week does not appear to be "clickable". Therefore, the comment is reproduced below:
By taking the following route (if it works), this publication can be downloaded free for a limited time. Go via the link provided below. Then, in turn, click on the link in the tweet that should appear on your screen.
Oftentimes when referring to global health crises around the globe, the circulating mindset whether in media or conversation is that if burdened communities knew how to protect themselves better, they would not suffer as extensively as they do. My time in Kigali, Rwanda taught me differently.
By now, the world is gasping together at the roll-out of a vaccine to prevent malaria among children. The origin of this shock, however, is what varies. For some, the amazement comes from the prospect of a novel preventative tool that sounds like it will be a leading soldier in the fight against malaria. Still, others who know of its low protection rate (about 39%) gasp in shock that this tool is being used at all.
Dear Experts across the world,
I looking out for a way to quantify the IRS in field itself without the filter papers being sent to the central laboratories for testing. Does anyone have got an idea how to do this? The information will be greatly useful for me to try it in India.
Attention is drawn to the following three publications that are relevant to the preparation of manuscripts on malaria:
Markus, M.B. 2019. Plasmodium – Yet More Don’ts. Trends in Parasitology 35 (2): 101–102.
McFadden, G.I. 2019. Plasmodium – More Don’ts. Trends in Parasitology 35 (1): 4–6.
The Greater Mekong Sub-region has made remarkable progress towards eliminating malaria in recent years, but efforts are now faltering in some areas. The development of tools to control forest-based transmission is taking too long and efforts to control malaria amongst high-risk mobile people are failing. If countries are to meet their elimination targets and prevent the spread of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria, urgent and radical changes will be required.
An article on vivax malarial recurrences was highlighted in the "Global Malaria News" section of last week's MalariaWorld Newsletter. Below (in the next paragraph) is a relevant explanation concerning the article (http://theconversation.com/why-does-malaria-recur-how-pieces-of-the-puzz...):
Genetically engineered mosquitoes are due to be released in Burkina Faso, Mali and Uganda by the Target Malaria research consortium. Target Malaria is a consortium of research institutes that receives core funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Silicon Valley companies and the Pentagon. In Burkina researchers recently secured government approval to release up to 10,000 sterile male Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.
The amount of time that passes between a symptomatic vivax malarial episode and a subsequent recurrence has in the past often been regarded as an indication as to whether the recurrence is a relapse (hypnozoite origin) or a recrudescence (merozoite origin). It should be noted that in the light of new knowledge and understanding, the time factor is not a valid criterion. (Link to first paper). (Link to second paper).
The government of India is playing efficient role in developing the nation’s framework at any instance. Moreover, in the healthcare industry it makes so many innovations for minimizing the negative effective of disease. Furthermore, malaria is the main public health problem in the numerous states of India which majorly includes North East segment. The government of India is projecting so many programs and projects which are very much useful for the general public as in these programs government spread awareness related to the malaria and other related viruses.
i have lived here in Tanzania for almost 18 years now. i was in Kenya prior to that working with pyrethrum as an effective repellent and killer.since coming to Tanzania i have tried and tested so many formulas on the market as well as created some of my own. at one stage i was working with the head of the Malaria campaign here Alex Mwita based at the world health organisation offices in Dar es Salaam. when i came here early 2000 i found breeding grounds were the biggest issue as everywhere there was standing water as well as rivers with steady corners allowing breeding.
We talk about asymptomatic, submicroscopic plasmodial infections as potentially being a threat to the elimination of malaria. This is, of course, partly because such infections are not normally treated; especially not in rural endemic areas where laboratory facilities are limited. An aggravation of the situation is when parasitaemias are so low that they cannot be detected by molecular diagnosis (where available) either. But obstacles to elimination are probably even greater than has been realized.
Yesterday, August 20th, was World Mosquito Day, which may seemingly sound like a day to honor the mosquito. Yet, more often than not, the narrative that permeates posts and notifications for this awareness day details of how bothersome the mosquito is, how undesirable, and how evil. Communicators may knowingly or unknowingly paint a portrait of a mosquito who intentionally picks up pathogens involved with spreading malaria, Zika, West Nile, or another, then buzzes deviously around spreading them to any and all unsuspecting humans like pollinating honey bees.
The two links below did not come up in the original "Comment" on a paper but should do so in this "Blog" version, which appears in full below. It was speculated in detail for the first time in two recent publications (particularly the second one) that in addition to a hypnozoite origin of relapse-like vivax recurrences, parasites in bone marrow might be a source. (Link to first paper). (Link to second paper).