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Artemisia annua prevents transmission of malaria from man to mosquito

December 30, 2012 - 17:12 -- Pierre Lutgen

In the human body the parasite injected into the bloodstream by the mosquito undergoes the transformation from the asexual plasmodium into the sexual gametocytes which the mosquito is going to pick-up during its blood meal. The killing effect of artemisinin on gametocytes is known since twenty years and was first mentioned in in vitro trials at the John Hopkins University. These results were confirmed in 1993 by research teams in China and India and mentioned in the document WHO/MAL/98.1086.

A wake-up call for all of us

December 27, 2012 - 12:34 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Last week showed unambiguously that unless the world pulls up its sleeves, the hard-won gains of the last decade may go up in smoke. 'The world' in the previous sentence is you, us, all of us engaged as professionals in the field of malaria. MalariaWorld has put out warning signals over the last three years, about the problems with drug resistance, about artemisinin resistance in SE Asia and the risk of it escaping to other parts of the world, about impregnated bednets being shipped to parts of Africa where full-blown resistance against pyrethroids occurs, about counterfeit drugs undermining curative treatment and increasing the risk of resistance popping up, about the difficulties of vivax elimination, about the problems with zoonotic malaria, about...the list is endless I'm afraid... 

Suppression of malaria, economic development, and electricity

December 22, 2012 - 13:24 -- William Jobin

We are all sure in - our hearts - that suppression of malaria in Africa will improve the rate of economic development. Recently this hope was formalized in an African Futures Brief by Moyer and Emde at the Pardee Center of the University of Denver in their Brief #5 published in November. Their projections indicated that driving the malaria prevalence down to zero in Africa by 2025 would by 2050 result in an increase in income of $30 per year per person, compared to the current average for Africa in 2010 of only $1.25.

Saving the failing WHO fight against malaria in Africa

December 21, 2012 - 17:20 -- Bart G.J. Knols

This contribution was posted as a comment by Dr. Bill Jobin, Director of Blue Nile Associates in response to the meeting report of the WHO Malaria Policy Advisory Committee that was held in September 2012.

It is ironic that a WHO policy meeting in September will ignore the terrible truth outlined by the WHO  Director General Margaret Chan in December - that the malaria program is going to crash.....  With due respect to Rob Newman and Margaret Chan in Geneva, I would like to suggest 6 steps to save their Global Malaria Program.  My suggestions are simple applications of rational approaches to a problem, the same things we would do with any other problem in life.  It does not take a Rocket Scientist to figure this out.  Simply put, I suggest that they Narrow their Focus, Expand their Base, add 2 more Components to their Strategy, establish a valid Monitoring and Evaluation system, and set Realistic Goals against which they can Measure their Progress ......

Update: LG Electronics guilty of 'counterfeit vector control'?

December 20, 2012 - 10:55 -- Bart G.J. Knols


The BBC published an article on the myths of mosquito repellers based on ultrasounds following articles on MalariaWorld. Amazingly, in spite of the massive evidence that is there to show that ultrasounds do nothing to repel mosquitoes, the electronics giant LG has started to market an air conditioner in Nigeria that incorporates ultrasound. The company published a news release titled 'LG fights malaria in Nigeria with hi-tech air conditioner'... 

It’s the most wonderful time of the year…is it still?

December 18, 2012 - 21:11 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Every year in December, the global malaria community eagerly awaits the World Malaria Report published by the World Health Organization. Every year countries around the world report their status of the disease, and year after year over the last decade the World Malaria Report was like a Christmas gift. Our collective efforts were paying off, both mortality and morbidity was on the decline, and scaling up of the tools yielded what we expected: A massive reduction in malaria. But this year’s end is different…

Should Artemisia annua (wormwood) tea be used as a prophylactic in endemic countries?

December 18, 2012 - 14:56 -- Bart G.J. Knols

This expert blog was contributed by Dr. Merlin Willcox, Honorary Secretary of the Research Initiative on Traditional Antimalarial Methods (RITAM), in response to the outcome of a poll on MalariaWorld and recent contributions regarding the use of Artemisia tea as a remedy for malaria.

As a scientist and medical doctor, I am interested in herbal medicines for malaria. No one can deny that they have been the source of the two most important and effective families of antimalarial drugs. Furthermore many people still rely on various herbal remedies for treating uncomplicated malaria. Much of my own research has aimed to investigate these objectively and to find the most effective remedies.
Artemisia annua is a very interesting plant and is the source of the most powerful antimalarial drug ever discovered, artemisinin. There are a few clinical trials which even show that it can be used as an “emergency, first-aid” treatment for malaria in semi-immune adults. However there are no published clinical trials which prove effect on the prevention of malaria, and no published clinical trials which demonstrate effectiveness in young children...

Rob MacLennan: Jury voted with their 'gut'

December 12, 2012 - 10:31 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Yesterday, BBC's William Kremer published an excellent article about the myths surrounding ultrasounds as repellents against mosquitoes. We both talked many times about these myths and he researched the matter thoroughly. Nothing but praise for this piece of great journalism. But for us here at MalariaWorld the story isn't over yet, because the Cannes Lions Festival is simply waiting for the media storm to blow over and then move on with business as usual...

A "vaccine" against malaria from Africa: ARTAVOL®.

December 5, 2012 - 17:33 -- Bart G.J. Knols

The guest blog below was provided by Dr. Pierre Lutgen.
Since 5 years a group of scientists at the Ministry of Health of Uganda is working on plant extracts which might have a prophylactic effect against malaria. Since 12 months a product is available in the pharmacies of Uganda. The product has been released after clinical and community trials over 3 years which have demonstrated that if taken regularly during one year it renders a person immune against malaria. It also reduced the asymptomatic malaria cases in an adult population by 60%.

Cinderella science

December 1, 2012 - 14:43 -- Bart G.J. Knols

The guest blog below was contributed by Prof. Matt Thomas, of Penn State University. Read more about Professor Thomas here.

Everybody would like to see the burden of malaria reduced and while there might be some disciplinary biases, most would agree that long-term sustainable management of malaria requires integrated strategies built on solid foundations of local knowledge and capacity. 
Of the broad approaches available (and by available I include potential tools somewhere along the development pipeline), vector control is clearly pivotal. This is not to diminish the importance of other technologies, such as drugs or diagnostics, but much of the recent decline in malaria can be attributed to wide-scale implementation of vector control tools such as long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual insecticide sprays (IRS). Furthermore, in nearly every historical case where malaria has been substantially reduced or locally eliminated, vector control has been key. 

Genetic control via population replacement: where do transgenics stand?

November 30, 2012 - 16:43 -- Mark Benedict

It is said that predictions are very difficult – especially when they concern the future. No doubt Scott O’neil and his Eliminate Dengue team never would have expected to be where they are now 10 years ago. In contrast, those who dreamt of releasing malaria-refractory transgenic mosquitoes two decades ago in the Tucson desert would have been surprised too.

Free Book for MalariaWorld Members!

November 27, 2012 - 21:45 -- Bart G.J. Knols

This week I was contacted by Dr. Dana Dalrymple with a very unusual offer. He wishes to provide all MalariaWorld subscribers free access to his book 'Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, ACTs & Malaria Control in Africa' published just seven months ago. This is truly remarkable and we highly appreciate this gesture!

In his email he said: "This will get it to the heart of the international malaria community and doubtless reach many who otherwise may not have heard of, or had access to, it." That is the spirit of truly open and global collaboration we aim to achieve with MalariaWorld. So a big 'Thank you' to Dr. Dalrymple! If you download it, why not send him a private message through the platform (available to subcribers) to let him know you appreciate his action...

Mercedes-Benz should win Cannes creativity award!

October 23, 2012 - 22:00 -- Bart G.J. Knols

In July I was approached by a Dutch radio station that brought a most interesting YouTube video to my attention. It features an award winning idea by Go Outside magazine (based in Brazil), this being the 'Repellent radio'. It was created by the Sao Paulo-based advertising agency Talent, and it won the Radio Grand Prix award 2012 at the Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. Take a look...

Open questions concerning artemisinin and its derivatives

October 22, 2012 - 14:27 -- Pierre Lutgen

The article below was written by Dr. Pierre Lutgen (see and; email:


We selected three papers among many others raising concerns about the failure of  ACTs.
In the Chinese paper from Liu AR et al (Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2000;18(2):76-8) it was documented that essential oil from a plant (also called patchouli oil) had extraordinary y synergistic properties with artesunate.  This essential oil even reverses the resistance against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Why were ACTs based on chemical and not on natural molecules?
The inhibition of Plasmodium with extracts from the Artemisia ludoviciana plant from Mexico is up to 98,6%. The plant does not contain artemisinin (F Malagon et al.  Parasitologia. 1997 ;39(1):3-7).
The paper from Vietnam (V Ha et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Jul-Aug;91(4):465-7)   claims that there is no significant difference between artemisinin, artemether, artesunate treatment! Why than produce ACT pills with artemisinin derivatives?

The case for open access

September 3, 2012 - 20:14 -- Bart G.J. Knols

The article below was published in Index on Censorship on 30 August 2012. Click here for the online version.

For most of us, it’s entirely logical that medical practitioners should be familiar with the latest scientific knowledge and evidence-based practices in order to treat ailments. This forms our fundamental basis of trust in medical professionals. If your doctor suggests a CT scan or drug X, you follow that advice on the basis of trust. So how would you feel if your doctor confesses that he lacks the latest scientific information about your condition?

Psychology Unveils Pathways To Better Cerebral Malaria Therapy

August 22, 2012 - 08:33 -- Bart G.J. Knols

The article below was contributed by journalist Ntaryike Divine Jr. (Douala, Cameroon) as part of the SjCOOP project in collaboration with MalariaWorld.

Over the years malaria has remained unwavering in its ravages, killing hundreds of thousands worldwide yearly, defying drugs and sapping household coffers of hard-earned income.
The disease, prevalent in the tropics is transmitted via bites of female bloodsucking anopheles mosquitoes infected with parasites of the genus Plasmodium.  Of the five plasmodium species, research has proven that P. falciparum is particularly dangerous.

Margaret Heffernan: A must see for all MW subscribers!

August 7, 2012 - 09:14 -- Bart G.J. Knols

I am not sure if at all you are familiar with TED, which stands for Technology, Entertainment, and Design, with its motto 'Ideas worth spreading'. I love to watch these talks, they inspire me, provide energy, and are often fun to watch.

Yesterday I watched the talk by Margaret Heffernan with the title 'Dare to disagree'. This is a very interesting talk and it made me think of the world of malaria. First, have a look at what she has to say...

Why screening houses is more cost-effective than bednets

August 1, 2012 - 15:50 -- William Jobin

People tend to do quick cost-benefit comparisons of bednets vs metallic screens, and make some large mistakes. Bednets are temporary, protect only against anopheline mosquitoes which bite at night, and are used only about one-third of the time. One of the reasons for their misuse is that they are suffocating to sleep under.

A deluge of genetic-control-of-mosquitoes news: recap

July 23, 2012 - 01:37 -- Mark Benedict

Seldom does so much news appear so suddenly that it grabs me by the ears and says, “You MUST write a blog. Now!” Following are the highlights of recent publications that reflect the maturing potential for genetic control to affect malaria and dengue transmission. If you’re interested in a quick summary of recent news and views, here it is.

Which is easier, to eradicate malaria or to find the Higgs Boson?

July 15, 2012 - 11:49 -- William Jobin

Last week I was in Geneva, trying to understand the WHO fight against malaria, when - to my delight - the folks at CERN announced that they had found the Higgs Boson! In fact we were driving out near Geneva Airport, right over the Super Hadron Collider, when they made the announcement. But it made me wonder about WHO. Why was it easier for CERN to find the Boson than for WHO to suppress malaria?

Malaria: a full-time problem addressed on a part-time basis by amateur entomologists

July 12, 2012 - 15:51 -- Bart G.J. Knols

The editorial below was written by Manuel F. LLuberas, MS IDHA, Public Health Entomologist

More than a decade after implementation, the global malaria control strategy has proven woefully inadequate. It has reported expenditures exceeding several billion dollars and relies heavily on passive methods like mosquito nets but has been unable to meet its goals of reducing an annual morbidity rate that continues to hover around half billion and a mortality rate equivalent to six Jumbo jetliners crashing daily. The time has come to get serious about this problem. Malaria vector control programs around the world need to be placed under trained public health entomologists who can implement comprehensive mosquito population suppression methods and deploy truly integrated vector control systems. Continuing in the current path is unacceptable and wastes quickly dwindling, limited resources.

Is the bednet era coming to an end?

June 22, 2012 - 12:47 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Whenever I teach on the history of malaria, I talk about the different time periods when certain ideas were fashionable and implemented, and then disappeared, and sometimes came back much later.

Take the 'chloroquine era'. Discovered by Bayer scientists in the early 1930s and saved millions of lives around the globe, followed by resistance popping up in SE Asia and Colombia in the late 1950s. Resistance spreading to Africa in the late 1970s, and its use now largely reduced. End of the 'chloroquine era'.

Time to give spatial repellency its rightful role in vector control

June 19, 2012 - 19:19 -- Bart G.J. Knols

The following Guest editorial was provided by Richard Tren, Kimberly Hess, and Donald Roberts.

Progress is being made against malaria. As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), malaria cases have declined by more than 50% between 2000 and 2010, and malaria-specific mortality has declined by 26% [1].  These gains are mainly due to the use of insecticides to control disease-spreading insects (vector control) through insecticide-treated bednets and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Despite the importance of public health insecticides in vector control, there is very little appreciation and understanding of how insecticides actually work in disease prevention.

Improving the vector control innovation process

June 7, 2012 - 20:41 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Insecticide resistance and the limits of our current vector control tools threaten our global progress against vector-borne diseases. Innovative vector control tools are therefore urgently needed, but some technical, financial and programmatic barriers may hinder innovation. In October 2011, a gathering of stakeholders including individuals from IVCC, WHO, donor institutions, industry, and other partners issued a joint call for a mapping of the current process to introduce new vector control tools for public health and the need to identify the challenges faced today in this process.


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