Many Artemisia plants are called wormwood, because for thousands of years they have been used against worms. There have been some recent trials on animals, but most studies are in vitro.
Artemisia annua came under the spotlight during the Vietnam War. Viêt-Cong who operated in swamps and rain forests lost more soldiers by mosquito bites than by American bullets. Ho Chi Min turned to China for help. Researchers at the Chinese Institute of Material Medicine had found a region of China that reported no malaria cases, and when they investigated, they discovered that its people drank a decoction of Artemisia annua at the first symptoms of malaria.
Sugar feeding is a fundamental characteristic of mosquito life. It is the basic food of adult mosquitoes, as floral nectar or honeydew. It is the only nutrient consumed by males and probably the more common one for females, even if they need vertebrate blood to produce eggs. Malaria parasites also are dependent on glucose as a nutrient source. As Plasmodium has no capacity to store energy in the form of glycogen they rely entirely on an exogenous supply of glucose. The infected erythrocyte exhibits a substantial increase in its permeability to low molecular weight sugar.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) hosted on November 16th a symposium to share key outcomes from the consultative process to update the malaria eradication research agenda (malERA). This review exercise, entitled “malERA Refresh”, has been led by the Malaria Eradication Scientific Alliance (MESA) with the participation of more than 180 experts around the world.
The WHO Malaria Report for 2016 mentions an alarming increase in the number of people no longer receiving protection from indoor spraying, and thus an increase in the number of people in endemic areas who have lost their immunity, due to previous intense spraying. For Africa, 10.5% of the populations were covered in 2010, but this had dropped to 5.7% by end of 2016.
It is important to note a recent report on the predicted impact of climate change on malaria in West Africa, by Teresa K. Yamana, Arne Bomblies and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir. 2016 in the Journal Nature, entitled "Climate change unlikely to increase malaria burden in West Africa." doi:10.1038/nclimate3085
“All things are poison and not without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison” Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, also known as Paracelsus (1493–1541).
The "World Malaria Report 2016" draws on data from 91 countries and areas with ongoing malaria transmission. The information is supplemented by data from national household surveys and databases held by other organizations.
This year's report tracks progress towards the 2020 malaria goals of the "Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030". It offers an in-depth analysis of trends in malaria control and elimination at global, regional and country levels.
I recommend the following recent publication for your reading on african malaria : Endo and Eltahir Malar J (2016) 15:578 DOI 10.1186/s12936-016-1633-7. The report is 'Environmental determinants of malaria transmission in African villages' by Noriko Endo and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir. You should also take a look at all the preceding publications of the Eltahir research group at MIT, which you can find if you look up the Eltahir research group on the web.
Preliminary note: In this document we will use indiscriminately the terms caryophyllene, alpha-caryophyllene, beta-caryophyllene, trans-caryopyllene, caryophyllene oxide, E-BCP
A press release from Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute raised a lot of concern. Based on a scientific paper published in Nature
Magnus Manske, Olivo Miotto, Susana Campino, Sarah Auburn, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Gareth Maslen, Jack O’Brien, Abdoulaye Djimde, Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum diversity in natural infections by deep sequencing. Nature 487, 375–379, 19 July 2012doi:10.1038/nature11174
Studies from 2009 already asked the same question
Interviews from world-renowned researchers that guide WHO’s malaria policies:
Fred Binka: "Countries have done a great job decreasing malaria cases and deaths, but we’re not out of the woods yet."
Read the interview here : http://www.who.int/malaria/mpac/interview-fred-binka/en/
The World Health Organization confirmed on 17 November that the world’s first malaria vaccine will be rolled out in pilot projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccinations will start in 2018.
The vaccine, known as RTS,S, acts against P. falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite globally, and the most prevalent in Africa. Advanced clinical trials have shown RTS,S to provide partial protection against malaria in young children.
A recent paper from Mali is alarming.
Abdoulaye A. Djimde, Amelia W. Maiga, Dinkorma, Ouologuem,Bakary Fofana, Issaka Sagara, Demba Dembele, Sekou Toure, Kassim Sanogo, Souleymane Dama, Bakary Sidibe, and Ogobara K. Doumbo. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children. Parasite. 2016; 23: 3. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2016003.
The same recrudescence with oral artemisinin monotherapy had already been observed in Vietnam in 2001.
WHO has just published its toolkit for Integrated Vector Management in sub-Saharan Africa. It is attached here for your perusal (and use!).
This toolkit for integrated vector management (IVM) is designed to help national and regional programme managers coordinate across sectors to design and run large IVM programmes. It is an extension of earlier guidance and teaching material provided by WHO: Handbook for integrated vector management , Monitoring and evaluation indicators for integrated vector management , Guidance on policy-making for integrated vector management and Core structure for training curricula on integrated vector management.
Co-chairs from the malERA Refresh Panels will discuss the findings of the updated malaria eradication research agenda (malERA) consultative process at the ASTMH annual meeting in Atlanta, USA. The symposium 'malERA Refresh: Updating the Malaria Eradication Scientific Agenda' is scheduled for Wednesday, 16 November, 1:45, Marriott Imperial B.
Several scientific papers have disappeared from internet.
For example the clinical trials with Artemisia annua in RD Congo from 2000 (attachment 1)
(M.S. Mueller , I.B. Karhagomba , H.M. Hirt , E. Wemakor. The potential of Artemisia annua L. as a locally produced remedy for malaria in the tropics: agricultural, chemical and clinical aspects. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73 (2000) 487–493)
and clinical trials 2002 (attachment 2)
THE KELCH PROPELLER HYPOTHESIS
The WHO Global Malaria Programme is currently calling for applications for membership on the Technical Expert Group on Surveillance, Monitoring and Evaluation. A total of 13 experts will be selected for an initial term of up to three years.
The James Cook University, Australia has two vacancies:
- Head of Academic Group and Senior Lecturer/Associate Professor, Communicable Disease Control and Tropical Medicine
- Lecturer, Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Applications close: 13 November 2016
It was dicovered by a Yugoslav chemist called Milutin Stefanovic.
Proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) are oligomeric and polymeric products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the fruits, bark, leaves and seeds of many plants, wine and teas, and are increasingly recognized as having beneficial effects on human health. They have attracted little interest in malaria research because in vitro they show no significant antimalarial activity.
Submitted by Jean-Jacques Schul
Founder of IDAY-International.
As a reaction to recent articles Financial Times
Malar J. 2016; 15: 419.
Published online 2016 Aug 18. doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1470-8
Towards malaria elimination in the MOSASWA (Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland) region
Devanand Moonasar, Rajendra Maharaj, Simon Kunene, Baltazar Candrinho, Francisco Saute, Nyasatu Ntshalintshali, and Natashia Morris corresponding author.
This infographic displays data from the World Health Organization’s “Projections of mortality and causes of death, 2015 and 2030”. The report details all deaths in 2015 by cause and makes predictions for 2030, giving an impression of how global health will develop over the next 14 years. Also featured is data from geoba.se showing how life expectancy will change between now and 2030.
SciDev.Net article - 21-09-2016
In a recent article about the spread of resistance to ACT in SE Asia, the authors recommend new drugs and better drug strategies:
'FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2016 Sep 8. pii: fuw037. [Epub ahead of print]
The clinical impact of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia and the potential for future spread.
Woodrow CJ1, White NJ2'.
Similarly, multiple resistance of Anopheline vectors is supposedly to be met with more careful selection of insecticides!