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Pulmonary administration of Artemisia afra against tuberculosis

April 29, 2016 - 09:34 -- Pierre Lutgen

Many constituents of medicinal herbs have a low bioavailabity, especially if administered orally. They do not pass the intestinal barrier. This is particularly the case for essential oils. A study (Ryuichi Fujisaki et al., www.tm.mahidol.ac.th/seameo/2012) of the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 47 essential oils showed that several have strong in vitro antiplasmodial activities, with IC50 values < 1.0 µg/ml. But notably these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally.

Partnership between Tropicare and Dutch Malaria Foundation announced

April 24, 2016 - 15:05 -- Ingeborg van Schayk

ALMERE, 22 March 2016. Today, two Dutch organisations that share a passion for making malaria history joined forces through the creation of a unique partnership. Tropicare, which runs the Care Plus® brand, encourages travellers, tourists, and day trippers to travel as healthy as possible. It has an extensive offering of products that are specifically designed for travellers to protect themselves against mosquito bites and malaria, such as repellents, bednets, and impregnated clothing.

Malaria, folates and PABA

March 30, 2016 - 17:38 -- Pierre Lutgen

Folates combine three molecules : pretidine & para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) & glutamate. They were discovered around 1940 and first isolated from spinach leaves. The term folate is derived from the latin word folium.

The malaria parasite has a unique feature of being able to salvage exogenous folate derivatives and/or synthesize them de novo. Due to its high rate of replication, the parasite has a high demand for folates. Folate metabolism is the target of several antimalarials.

Blog: Revolutionary new malaria test could save lives by being faster, more accurate and easier to use

March 18, 2016 - 08:00 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
This is an expert blog by Prof Daouda Ndiaye
 
A new method of testing for malaria that will put less strain on lab technicians and provide more accurate results at the same time could be a watershed moment in the battle against a disease that is one of the top three killers of children worldwide.

When will permanent methods be added by PMI?

March 11, 2016 - 14:43 -- William Jobin

In a recent analysis of the US Presidential Malaria Initiative (PMI) by Richard Oxborough, it was pointed out that indoor spraying is being reduced and even abandoned as a control measure because of resistance to the cheaper insecticides. In Angola, they have completely abandoned indoor spraying as a method. The newer insecticides are too expensive.

It is alarming that now the only effective control method available is drugs. What will happen when drug resistance spreads? Is PMI prepared for this?

Artemisia plants, prophylaxis and gut microbiota

March 8, 2016 - 08:11 -- Pierre Lutgen

The human gut microbiota has become the subject of extensive research in recent years and our knowledge of the resident species and their potential functional capacity is rapidly growing. Our gut harbours a complex community of over 100 trillion microbial cells which influence human physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune function while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with many diseases.

Are Artemisias the only plants containing arachidonic acid?

February 26, 2016 - 18:24 -- Pierre Lutgen

ARACHIDONIC ACID AND FEVER

Arachidonic acid (AA or ARA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:4n6) covalently bound in esterified form in membrane phospholipids of most body cells. Following irritation or injury, arachidonic acid is released and oxygenated by enzyme systems leading to the formation of an important group of inflammatory mediators, to the prostaglandins products (PGE₂) by the cyclooxygenase enzyme.

Antiretrovirals and antimalarials (FRENCH VERSION). Un mélange fatal!

February 19, 2016 - 08:57 -- Pierre Lutgen

Lors de la conférence du 19 mai 2014 à l’Université du Nebraska qui portait sur le SIDA, F.A. Fehintola montrait que la nevapirine prescrite simultanément avec l’artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) réduisait de 70% la concentration du principe actif lumefantrine dans le sang infecté.

Ceci ne fait que confirmer des résultats obtenus en Afrique du Sud (T Kredo , Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Dec; 55(12):5616-23). L’artemether et la nevapirine sont métabolisés par le cytochrome P450 3A4 induit par la nevapirine.

Artesunate causes recrudescence, Artemisia however kills gametocytes

February 16, 2016 - 11:03 -- Pierre Lutgen

A paper from Mali published last week is alarming (AA Djimbe et al., Parasite, 2016. 23, 3). Artesunate does not clear mature gametocytes during oral artesunate treatment and does not prevent the appearance of new gametocytes. This confirms to a large extent the randomized, double blind, large scale clinical trials of Munyanga and Idumbo in Maniema-Congo end of last year (see www.malariaworld.org).

Artemisia defeats schistosomiasis

February 9, 2016 - 12:53 -- Pierre Lutgen

In parallel with the clinical trials run by a team of medical doctors in the province of Maniema on the efficiency of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra against malaria, (see Breaking News Jan.5 on www.malariaworld.org) they have completed another large scale randomized, double blind trial against schistosomiasis, Artemisia vs Praziquantel.

The strong prophylactic and antimalarial properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

February 3, 2016 - 13:08 -- Pierre Lutgen

ABSTRACT

Artemisia plants are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generate prostaglandins and stimulate monocytes. PUFAs possess well documented antimalarial and prophylactic properties. Their half-life in plasma is several days and in adipose tissue several weeks. This may explain the prophylactic effect of regular consumption of Artemisia infusion or powder.

INTRODUCTION

Is genetic modification of anophelines the way to start elimination of malaria?

January 27, 2016 - 18:48 -- William Jobin

From the recent reports out of California and other places, it appears that anophelines can be genetically modified so that (1) they are no longer susceptible to plasmodium infections, and (2) their progeny will be all males! If this can be developed for field use, it looks to me like it is the Beginning of the End of malaria in Africa. But I am an engineer with no experience in genetics. Do you think that this technique can be developed for field application?

Breaking news from clinical trials with Artemisia plants

January 5, 2016 - 15:30 -- Pierre Lutgen

A team of medical doctors in RDCongo, Jerome Munyangi and Michel Idumbo, have run randomized clinical trials on a large scale in the Maniema province with the participation of some 1000 malaria infected patients. The trials were run in conformity with the WHO procedures and compared Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra with ACTs (Coartem and ASAQ). For all the parameters tested herbal treatment was significantly better than ACTs: faster clearance for fever and parasitemia, absence of parasites on day 28 for 99.5% of the Artemisia treatments and 79.5% only for the ACT treatments.

Help me - Was 2015 the beginning of the End?

December 30, 2015 - 15:34 -- William Jobin

A recent report from a laboratory in California offers the hope for a method of genetic modification which could lead to species elimination from large geographical areas, such as Anopheles gambiae elimination from Africa. To quote the New York Times Science section of 22 December, “A gene drive designed to render a population extinct is known as a crash drive. A crash drive being developed for mosquitoes consists of a gene engineered into the Y chromosome that shreds the X chromosome in the cells that make the mosquito’s sperm, thus ensuring that all progeny are male.

Malaria, diabetes and arginine

December 12, 2015 - 09:26 -- Pierre Lutgen

Diabetes burden is rising sharply in the African Region according to Dr Matshidiso Moeti, the WHO Regional Director for Africa. Reports of type 2 diabetes in children – previously rare – is a growing concern. In some countries, children and adolescents account for almost half of all newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, amputation, kidney failure and heart disease.

Press release: Researchers receive $10.2 million to study new malaria-prevention method

December 11, 2015 - 06:43 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- In collaboration with partners in Europe and Africa, researchers at Penn State have received a five-year, $10.2-million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to investigate a new method for preventing the transmission of malaria. The method involves limiting mosquito access to houses by blocking openings and installing "eave tubes" that contain a unique type of insecticide-laced mosquito netting developed by Dutch partner In2Care that kills the insects as they attempt to enter. 
 

Quarterly report on recent developments in Vector Control

December 8, 2015 - 09:28 -- Bart G.J. Knols

This quarterly report, produced by Vector Works, is meant to update the malaria community in general, and particularly those interested in vector control, on recently published research related to the improvement or development of new or alternative vector control tools. The report summarizes relevant new studies and highlights possible interpretations and implications, and it provides links to the original work. Aspects of indoor residual spraying are not included here as they are addressed in another newsletter (http://www.africairs.net). Read on to discover the exciting new contributions to the vector control field.

Palustop: antimalarial suppository from Cameroon for children

December 7, 2015 - 21:17 -- Pierre Lutgen

Rosine D. Chougouo NKuitchou1, Ernest Djoko1, Jonas Kouamouo1, Diane F. Domko1, Pierre Tane2, Denis Wouessidjewe1,3. 

1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Université des Montagnes »P O Box 208 Bangangte, Cameroon 2 Laboratory of Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang P O Box 67 Dschang Cameroon 3 UFR of Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Pharmacochemistry, University of Joseph Fourrier of Grenoble PO Box 53 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9.

 

Does artesunate promote malaria transmission?

December 3, 2015 - 15:34 -- Pierre Lutgen

The amino acid arginine is the only molecule in our food known to generate nitric oxide NO via NOS enzymes. It plays a key role in malaria therapy and cerebral malaria as described in previous blogs on www.malariaworld.org. NO derived from arginine is not only lethal for merozoites but also for gametocytes. NO is efficient against other diseases like leishmaniasis or filariasis (R O’Connor et al., Infection and Immunity, 2000, 68, 6101-6107).

New from MESA: MESA Track One Year Anniversary!

November 27, 2015 - 07:00 -- MESA Alliance

The MESA Track database is now one year old. Thanks to your collaboration, the database has grown to 700 projects over the past year. MESA Track is an open and online platform for sharing information on current research projects relevant to malaria elimination.

More than 25 institutions from across the world have shared their full research portfolio in MESA Track, including institutions working on basic science, product development and operational research.

Zinc and beta-hematin inhibition

November 25, 2015 - 07:52 -- Pierre Lutgen

Our partners at the Al Quds University in Palestine have found that a zinc-arginine complex strongly inhibits beta-hematin crystallization, like quinine does, but that zinc or arginine alone are not effective. Arginine and zinc play an important role in the human physiology. The plants from the Artemisia family are rich in these constituents which play probably a key role against malaria and other diseases. They easily form a complex in a large range of reagent concentrations (E Bottari et al., Monatshefte Chemie 2014, 145, 1707-1714).

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