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Event update: Conference Malaria Vaccines for the World

April 15, 2016 - 08:56 -- MalariaWorld Events

MVW 2016, Fourth International Conference
Date: 2-4 May 2016
Location: Leiden University Medical Center LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands

Please find attached the provisional programme brochure information for the 4th MVW meeting in 2016. The attached details are also available at:

Secure online registration is also possible at the above website address.

All late abstract submissions should be directed for my attention ( ) and if you have any queries then do come back to me.

Best regards.

John Herriot
MVW 2016 Secretriat

PDF icon MVW 2016 6pp Brochure.pdf391.47 KB


Submitted by Peter Okechukwu on

I am glad that great scientists are gathering to reason over a vaccine for malaria. This is great!
However, despite the great gains we expect through a good vaccine, it is still not out of place for health authorities across nations to use other scientific findings to enforce malaria elimination; especially when vaccines can fail under some conditions we may discuss later, especially in the underdeveloped countries where bureaucracies are opposing good implementation of policies.
Can't we use cheaper and community participating/involving means as I have listed out in one of my research proposals while waiting for bogus expenses on vaccine?


Mass health education campaigns and training in malaria prevention is overdue across professions since the medical practitioners could not do this work alone all these years. Educating people on how to avoid providing conducive dwelling and breeding places for mosquitoes is easy and very timely. Health-consciousness must be imbibed as a way of helping governmental agencies control the spread of communicable diseases; wherein refuse dumps should not be located near houses as abound presently in many states of Nigeria. Wanton discard of non-decaying wastes that leads to the collection of rainwater in discarded old tyres, empty cans, and abandoned vehicles does not require levying fine on the masses before a good sense of reasoning leads us to always do the right thing. Draining all stagnant water, clearing bushes around the house were used by our predecessors to avert many diseases we are struggling with today. Eliminating potholes on the roads, constructing deep and wide gutters for easier passage of water and involving town planners in the landscaping of our cities are good measures of depriving mosquitoes of their breeding grounds by leaders who bear the welfare of the masses at heart. Domestic water should be stored in containers that can be covered and should not be left open, a practice that will as well reduce contamination of water before usage (Carrington, 2001).
Optimum utilization of available diagnostic services will retard the over-diagnosis of malaria by physicians, pharmacists, chemist store operators and ignorant patients; a practice that have often caused drug resistance against many antimalarial drugs (MPHS 2010; Juma and Zurovac, 2011). Many researchers have demonstrated the lack of reliability of clinical signs and symptoms while detecting malaria in febrile adults, and have made very strong recommendations for laboratory-based parasitological diagnosis as the only reliable solution to confirming or ruling out malaria in febrile adults (Chandramohan et al., 2001; Reyburn et al., 2004; Mwangi et al., 2005; Njama-Meya et al., 2007; Wongsrichanalai et al., 2007; Rakotonirina et al., 2008; D’Acremont et al., 2009; Mosha et al., 2010; Nyandigisi et al., 2011; Tahita et al., 2013; Pulford et al., 2013).
The result of a work done in Jos Plateau state in 2014 showed that malaria is more likely to cause fever than typhoid infection despite the popular claim of many patients that they have typhoid in many occasions of fever. Based on their findings, they considered it necessary to suggest that every treatment of fever should be preceded by appropriate laboratory diagnosis that can establish the actual cause and concluded that the use of Widal test alone in the diagnosis of typhoid fever is unreliable, misleading and should be discouraged; at least in an era of increasing number of unemployed medical laboratory scientists that can be empowered for a thorough diagnosis of patients using easily available media for culture techniques (Ukaegbu et al., 2014).
More so, drug therapeutic effect against any specie of malaria will strengthen the use of the drug if its efficacy is determined through a post-treatment laboratory investigation for malaria. This has always been used during drug efficacy trials. If this is imbibed by all clinicians, it can open up an avenue for research to reveal the continuing efficacy of a drug, and its degree per patient for different brands of antimalarial drugs, before an unforeseen resistance becomes a problem in patient management; especially in a nation like Nigeria where fake drugs are easily smuggled into the markets. Surprisingly, most clinical treatments have often been reckoned with only pre-treatment laboratory testing or no pre-treatment testing all; even when a clinician and his/her patient will be more assured of total recovery from malaria if a good post-treatment testing culture is imbibed. It is not yet late for a change in this direction in most malaria endemic nations, so as to achieve a possible elimination of malaria through strategic diagnosis and treatment. In countries where the burden for malaria is much, a vital question all researchers ought to be looking for an answer in view of the present trend is: “Where next?” This will guide us to strengthen health systems at referral and community levels, so that rapid accurate diagnosis and effective treatment will be easily available for those who are least able to withstand the consequences of disease; especially as it is true that misdiagnosis of malaria contributes to a vicious cycle of increasing ill-health and deepening poverty (Amexo et al., 2004).
Donors have been up and doing in supplying LLITNs, but those involved in the distribution should do it with passion so as to reach out to all and maintain a true statistics of the distribution to strengthen subsequent planning. It is morally bad and quite unethical for paid workers to divert what they are sent to distribute. People should be taught how best to use their LLITNs to reduce tearing. It is not out of place for individuals to urgently sow their torn nets early enough as a way of benefiting optimally from the benevolence of RBM partners before a later supply reaches them, especially as resources have remained inadequate (RBMP, 2008; WHO, 2012; BMGF, 2013).
There are better ways to close small entry points,doors and windows against mosquitoes if buildings are designed to achieve this timely goal. I intend publishing designs that have been useful to me on this later. Really, the population of mosquitoes in our our homes can be drastically reduced if an architectural touch towards the covering of vital openings with removable mosquito net fittings that can be washed and re-fixed is imbibed. This makes it easier for each family to use such fittings without stress and without the nets retaining dust particles for long.
The environment can be beautified purposefully with plants that are known to repel mosquitoes that cause malaria, especially as plants extracts and their essential oils have been used for centuries to fight aggressive mosquitoes that can cause malaria, dengue, sleeping sickness. Native plants when used to expel mosquitoes have the advantage of low cost and local availability. When they are used in a guided manner, they can beautify our homes and avail more oxygen for healthier breathing. Popular among the list are: Cadaga Tree – Eucalyptus torelliana, Catmint – Nepeta faassenii, Catnip – Nepeta cataria, Citronella Grass – Cymbopogon nardus, Clove – Syzygium aromaticum, Floss Flower – Ageratum, Lavender – Lavandula angustifolia, Lemon Balm – Melissa officinalis, Lemon Grass – Cymbopogon citrates, Lemon Thyme – Thymus vulgaris, Mexican Marigold – Tagetes lucida, Lemon Verbena – Aloysia triphylla, Rosemary – Rosmarinus officinalis, Snowbrush – Ceanothus velutinus, Vanilla Leaf – Achlys triphylla (Lalwani, 2011; Steps, 2014).
The bureaucracies that make the helpful discoveries of targeted researches to end up in academic archives that care not to translate facts into policies and achievable goals, despite increasing academic gurus, needs to be conquered for the masses to benefit from many published findings of our committed researchers. For the power of knowledge is the effect it has in the lives of those who can benefit from its application. Exploring the use of indigenous herbs across tribes that have proved their efficacy is overdue, both for malaria prevention and treatment. Indigenous pharmaceutical companies should partner with researchers and therein develop
Likewise, the accumulating benefits of land reclamation can be maximized at the rural setting as steps are being taken to develop these rural areas. This is quite timely as the ephemeral methods of malaria prevention have not so much helped us, especially when we look at the huge sum of money being spent by RBM partners on LLITNs, indoor spraying of mosquito insecticides and fumigation of mosquito hide-outs and breeding places. When this is applied at these rural settings, the under-listed gains/benefits will be made, namely: [1] Spraying of homes will no longer be regular as more years will pass without need for indoor spraying of mosquito insecticides and fumigation of mosquito hide-outs and breeding places, which saves a lot of money that can be channeled into other goals. [2] There will be reduced stress of vacating from homes as residents move away some food items and furniture for the spraying to be safe and effective, and this reduces the resistance treadmill often witnessed by officers. [3] There will be increased availability of land for agricultural purposes as floods are well channeled and swamps are purposely drained. [4] When the natives of these rural areas are assisted with infrastructural provisions, necessary tools and mobilization money for clearing of bushes, reopening of closed drainage channels and construction of new drainage channels; these rural dwellers will make greater gains out of the assistance of RBM partners. [5] Domestic activities will joyfully continue uninterrupted if indoor spraying of mosquito insecticides and fumigation of mosquito hide-outs and breeding places are drastically reduced by land reclamation. [6] Younger children often develop immunity against malaria and will not often fall sick where land reclamation is maximized, unlike regular attacks of malaria that often manifest when indoor spraying of mosquito insecticides and fumigation of mosquito hide-outs and breeding places are not adequately sustained. [7] Increase in the number of villages where elimination of mosquito breeding sites have led to a sustainable malaria elimination and increased saving of lives and finances (Jobin, 2014).
In view of the above, the recommendations made by WHO in 2012 still need to be pursued with passion, namely: the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) for vector control, and prompt access to diagnostic testing of suspected malaria and treatment of confirmed cases. Additional interventions which were recommended in areas of high transmission for specific high risk groups include: Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infancy (IPTi). Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), previously referred to as Intermittent Preventive Treatment in children (IPTc), that is, the administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial medicine at intervals during the malaria season to prevent malarial illness with the objective of maintaining therapeutic antimalarial drug concentrations in the blood throughout the period of greatest malarial risk in children (WHO, 2012). These can be achieved if every nation fine-tunes the capacity for early diagnosis and treatment of febrile conditions suspected to be malaria by enforcing the code of conduct and ethics across all medical professions in order to achieve a better result through synergy, especially now we are lacking a workforce that still believe in altruism. WHO: T3: Test. Treat. Track; for the scaling up of diagnostic testing, treatment and surveillance for malaria, is a goal that abhors apathy; and a general reorientation can achieve this goal (WHO, 2012).
It is indeed very sad, that the importance of strengthening the weak health services in sub-Saharan Africa has been overlooked by most medical practitioners who think that the ultimate thing is the gains they make out of other people’s problems. This makes the appeal for a change while reporting on the result of an analysis of the effects of the pilot phase of the Affordable Medicines Facility—malaria (AMFm) in seven countries of sub-Saharan Africa very eminent (Tozan et al., 2013).

There is a need for a vaccine indeed. But, we must not defer what can be done now, while waiting for a vaccine.
Details of the research findings will be published in Malaria Journal as soon as my team members finish the thorough work we have scheduled to use altruism to control and possibly terminate malaria at most rural settings.
For a better understanding of what we will discuss later from the study we are carrying out, let me include these other sections, namely:

The lack of proper understanding of the relevance of many preventive measures and the lack of proper implementation of preventive measures by many individuals at the rural and markedly under-developed areas have made many students alongside with other rural dwellers to be regularly exposed to infectious mosquito bites. This has often made some to suffer from asymptomatic and clinical malaria depending on one's immunological response to the infection, with some falling sick during their examination period sequel to stress-related depressed immunity.


Residing in a rural community during the rainy season amidst surrounding bushes can pose a health challenge. These rural communities often have plants that can retain water for long after rainfall, and this has always favoured the breeding of mosquitoes during the rainy season (Otajevwo 2013). Large cocoyam leaves, pineapple leaves, fallen plantain and banana leaves often develop leaf folds that retain water for long and have often given shelter to many mosquitoes during the rainy season. Naturally, mosquitoes get attracted by these habitats and later lay their eggs inside these residual water that often do not get dried up before the next rainfall.
Likewise, rural dwellers as avails presently in Umunze are used to using earthen pots, metallic buckets, pans and drums to preserve water during the rainy season; as they depend on intermittent rainfall and regular visits to streams and rivers for their water supply. These domestic containers for storing water are often left uncovered despite the need for them to be covered so as to reduce favourable breeding sites for mosquitoes at the rural setting (Carrington, 2001). This we intend teaching these rural dwellers, especially as no military or civilian regime in Nigeria has ever considered their need for water to date as to have located any water reservoir in any of the towns in Orumba South Local Government Area (LGA). The chief author who has visited many streams on foot while walking across over ten kilometers of erosion endangered bushy paths, sometimes under the illumination of the moon, cannot forget easily the mercy of Yahweh through rainfalls that lessen the stress of trekking through hills and valleys for water day and night.
This is why a more than twenty years of regular staying in Ezira, a proximate rural community, and a thirty years of burden after studying the life cycle of mosquitoes while observing their breeding sites in broken earthen pots, abandoned leaking drums, buckets and pans that retain residual water for months during the rainy season whenever the chief author visits his town Ezira, has given impetus to this work. His co-authors have their own similar experiences that have strengthened this observation, and a need to join hands to carry out this work in altruism and with a thorough professional synergy that will benefit the masses.
More so, it has become a continuing trend across cities and villages that people drink from disposable cans and later litter the cans indiscriminately without regard for the health risk of these cans becoming breeding sites for mosquitoes as they retain water for long during the rainy season. Sadly, there is hardly any agency that assists these rural dwellers with the spraying of mosquito insecticides in the bushes that could have hindered mosquito breeding. They hardly have money to fumigate their bushes, if ever they have the knowledge of the benefits.
In the same vein, governmental sanitation agency only exists in records of deceptive government policy without the impact of their services in the rural areas. This is why waste segregation and recycling that could have prospered the availability of manures in these rural areas are lacking as people discard cans, nylons and decay-able solid wastes together. Sadly too, these refuse dumps that remain undisturbed throughout the rainy season have often turned out to increase mosquito breeding sites. Indeed, you can see piles of such indiscriminate dumps that often get burnt with fire whenever they get dried up across towns and cities in Anambra state; just because there was no prior waste segregation that could have strengthened a profitable recycling of domestic wastes. The ignorance of rural dwellers have worsened this phenomenon, and we intend using our findings to educate the masses over the need for a very possible change, at least at the rural setting where villagers can join hands together to manage their domestic wastes if their present privilege of sufficient dumping sites is properly harnessed. This can be a turning point towards ephemeral methods of malaria prevention which we intend working on as a later community project in many towns that have nearby streams and rivers in Anambra state.
Students who often read in the evenings without sufficient protection against mosquitoes that often fly around for a blood meal can become victims of asymptomatic malaria under the above favourable conditions. These students, especially some who are still growing up with village/rural mentality, will hardly deem it fit to spend personal money on long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) that could have sheltered them from mosquito bites during their sleep; thereby elongating their moments of risky exposure to mosquito bites, especially as many do not regularly benefit from the donations of Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners. We have often seen in the past some of the LLITNs donated by RBM partners being sold in markets at Onitsha, Anambra state; even when the inscription: “NOT TO BE SOLD” is clearly displayed on the packet. Sadly, they are so expensive that poor rural dwellers may not easily buy them from these city markets. Even Coartem, a brand of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of malaria, has often been sold in the cities despite the inscription: “NOT TO BE SOLD” on the packets. Amidst these, the need for medical laboratory investigations at intervals to discover an ailment before one gets bored down with overwhelming symptoms has not been imbibed by many rural dwellers who often depend on charlatans for their health management until a case worsens.
As road networks increase, connecting cities to villages, with readily available mass transit buses here and there; coupled with readily available social networks, some of these students readily get connected with far and near friends, and often spare time for weekend visits to stay with businessmen who often travel outside this country and may come back with travellers’ malaria and remain asymptomatic while relating closely with these students. During such visits, they can be infected by female anopheles mosquitoes that have bitten these business tycoons. You may even see some of them with these business tycoons as they get driven to and fro restaurants and hotels that have recently multiplied across all LGAs in Anambra state. This is posing a threat to our nation as we may begin to identify plasmodium species that were not present in this nation before, a concern that has imposed this research burden on us (Texier ​et al​., 2013; Yusof ​et al​., 2014).
Some whose parents/guardians have remained asymptomatic carriers after being infected in the farms, have often contacted this infection after staying with them during their short visits (Bhumiratana​ et al.​, 2012; Alias​ et al., ​2014). A rural town like Umunze that is recently struggling to metamorphose into a developed city is associated with swampy farmlands that have remained a daily place of sojourn of farmers for five or more times in a week, with some leaving the farms only late in the evening to trek back to their homes. This makes Umunze and Ezira an occupation associated malaria prone zones with massive swamps, and many students at the study site are from these two towns.
Some of these students during their holidays within and outside Umunze, even visit the farms to help their parents and guardians, while some enter into forests to fetch firewood, while some visit far away streams and rivers in remote villages to fetch water, or for sports; exposing themselves to highly infectious vectors before coming back to school to infect other students before they ever get treated of malaria as they closely relate with other students while reading, during social interactions and while sleeping together as roommates (Wangdi ​et al.​, 2011; Yangzom ​et al.​, 2012).
Even those whose parents and guardians live in the cities, often assist their parents/guardians to trade near stagnant gutters, thereby exposing themselves to hungry infectious vectors during their short visits and holidays. Stagnation of gutters around places of business activities and residential areas has remained a major cause of the recent increase of communicable diseases () and we are worried that government agencies seem not to be doing much in the prevention of communicable diseases as concerns what a purposely-educated masses can do if the ruling class makes vital provisions. We are often worried by the avoidable dangers which grown-ups are exposing all to through the increasing indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes into gutters for flood to carry, a trend that has brought much woes on urban dwellers as shallow gutters easily get filled up here and there. Surprisingly, adults who couldn’t feel any remorse over teaching their children to dump domestic wastes into gutters, have graduated into throwing wastes of broken glasses, pieces of aluminium frames, used cans and bottles into gutters; and pile up waste nylons close to gutters as aluminium dealers make their sales despite the sanitation levy they pay to the state government. These nylons that hardly get evacuated on time by the state sanitation agency, easily get dispersed by wind, while some get carried away by flood from shallow gutters. Likewise, the neglect of landscaping as buildings and roads spring up across cities has led to filling of many gutters by sand too. These have favoured the breeding of mosquitoes in many cities in most states of this country, including Anambra state (Otajevwo 2013)..
To worsen this challenge, some of these students while living in rented buildings that are often located near places where the breeding of mosquitoes may be favoured by some of the ecological factors above, often add more fuel to the glowing fire; as some of these rented rooms are overcrowded, with increased room temperature that facilitate vector-man contact (Otajevwo 2013). In the light of the above, the choice of students from this highly esteemed school is timely; with the hope that findings from this study will challenge our town planners and health policy makers and executors to fine-tune the development of appropriate surveillance and response system that will retard the incidence of malaria among students in the South-East, and in Nigeria in general. This will go a long way in reducing the incidence of malaria among the general population, wherein man hours and other resources being wasted through the attack of malaria will be forestalled (Leighton et al., 1993; Holding and Snow 2001). This is our goal, and can be achieved through an awareness creating research like this that is based on sure scientific findings.
The clinician and medical laboratory scientist in charge of the clinical and laboratory services at the college has been co-opted into this survey for follow-up counselling after the research has ended, so as to partner with us that came from outside Umunze in using the findings of this work to assist the rural dwellers in Orumba South LGA; as they link up with other practitioners within and around Umunze to create further awareness towards available measures individuals and communities can easily use to prevent and readily cure malaria. This is a possible goal our altruism can achieve as we use our professions to answer God’s call to service. We must note that interest in mapping the global distribution of malaria is motivated by a need to define populations at risk for appropriate resource allocation, and to provide a robust framework for evaluating its global economic impact. Comparison of older and more recent malaria maps reveals how the disease has been geographically restricted, as it remains entrenched in poor areas of the world with climates suitable for transmission (Snow et al., 2005). This is why a study like this that looks like the first work on the prevalence of malaria at Umunze, is very timely in order to attract necessary malarial interventions to all the poor rural dwellers in Orumba South LGA through the sacrifices of our team members and the donors that will like to attend to our recommendations.


The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among students living in a rural bushy setting at Umunze.


1. To determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among the students of Federal College of Education (Technical) Umunze that are living within and around the busy permanent site at Ndikpa Umunze.

2. To identify the plasmodium species prevalent among these students.

3. To identify some preventive measures some of these students are using to guard against regular onset of malaria, and to what extent; wherein, they can be used to educate the rural dwellers after our counselling them.

Okechukwu Peter Okee
CMLS, NAUTH Nnewi Anambra State Nigeria.