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Breaking news from clinical trials with Artemisia plants

January 5, 2016 - 15:30 -- Pierre Lutgen

A team of medical doctors in RDCongo, Jerome Munyangi and Michel Idumbo, have run randomized clinical trials on a large scale in the Maniema province with the participation of some 1000 malaria infected patients. The trials were run in conformity with the WHO procedures and compared Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra with ACTs (Coartem and ASAQ). For all the parameters tested herbal treatment was significantly better than ACTs: faster clearance for fever and parasitemia, absence of parasites on day 28 for 99.5% of the Artemisia treatments and 79.5% only for the ACT treatments. A total absence of side effects was evident for the treatments with the plants, but for the 498 patients treated with ACTs, 210 suffered from diarrhea, and/or nausea, pruritus, hypoglycemia etc. The efficiency was equivalent for Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra. More important even is the observation for the total absence of gametocytes after 7 days treatment with the herb. A tremendous hope for malaria eradication. The results have been communicated to the local health authorities, and to the Ministries of Health and Research in the RDCongo who were supportive of these trials. The draft of a paper is almost ready and will be submitted to a peer reviewed scientific journal.

The financial support for the trials comes from the association MoreforLess in Paris.

This is not the only clinical trial run in 2015 with Artemisia annua aqueous infusions. In Benin the University of Abomey, together with the Universities of Louvain and of Liege, run a large scale trial with Artemisia annua grown in Benin. The trial involved 130 malaria infected patients. Fever clearance was evident after 48 hours and parasitemia decreased by 70% already on the first day, and remained 100 % absent on days 14 and 28. No side effects were noticed. The research team from Benin strongly recommends for African countries to replace the expensive and now often ineffective ACTs by Artemisia annua tea (H Zime-Diawara et al., Int J Biol Chem Sci 2015, 9-2, 692-702).

These results confirm results obtained by the association IFBV-Belherb and her partners in many small scale trials in several African countries over the last 6 years. Therapeutic efficiency always was > 95% and prophylaxy was noticed and documented. The abstracts or peer reviewed papers of all these trials are available on request.

Jérôme Munyangi, Michel Idumbo, Lucile Cornet-Vernet, Pierre Lutgen


Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Seeing the positive results from clinical trials in RDCongo and Benin and the involvement of the local health authorities, Yves Saint-Hillier, a French medical doctor sent us a detailed report on similar trials he run in Mali more than 3 years ago. He never disclosed these results because he was afraid that Bigpharma and WHO would interfer. Indeed in 2012 WHO issued a document which prohibits the use of Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria (WHO Position Statement, June 2012). Our partner wanted to avoid embarrassment and conflict for the local health authorities and aggressive press releases from those who run the ACT business.

Our partner, Dr Saint-Hillier worked with capsules containing powdered leaves from the French Artemisia annua genotype with a content of 0.1 % artemisinin only. A total of 40 000 capsules containing one gram was administered, to adults, children, but also to neonates and pregnant women.
The therapeutic effect of the capsules against fever and other clinical signs of malaria is always very fast. After the rectal application of 500 mg capsules to 100 neonates, sometimes 3 capsules per day, no negative secondary effect was noticed neither for neonates nor pregnant women. The birth weight was increasing to > 3kg and no fatality was noticed after the treatment. In the case of children the absenteeism at school was drastically decreased according to the teachers.

Patients suffering from schistosomiasis and other intestinal diseases were also treated with capsules and the preliminary results were positive.

More details on the procedures and results are available on request.

Artemisia annua plantations have been started in these villages.

Yves Saint-Hillier and Pierre Lutgen

Submitted by Irene Teis on

Wouldn’t it be time to talk openly about other clinical trials which have been run in Africa by courageous medical doctors, but who did not dare to publish them in scientific journals because they were running the risk to lose their job or funding or even worse. This is the case for Emilien Fouda in Cameroon, Adelaide Agostinho In Mozambique, Romain Dangbame in Benin, Ibrahima Diop in Senegal, Mamadou Darboe in the Gambia, Constant Tchandema in Katanga with Artemisia afra, Ingo Vicens in Burundi, Elke Steinacher in Senegal, Dr Veronique Chabusiku in Kinshasa, Mechthild Keller and Hannelore Klabes with Artemisia afra in Tanzania, Gebeyaw Tiruneh in Ethiopia, Ahmed Hassanali in Kenya, Dr Felicitas Roelofsen in India, Lucy Kangethe in Kenya, Fondation Rosa Alfieri in Senegal, Mathias Daoudou in Cameroon.

Some results have been published in peer reviewed papers. Michel Onimus on the positive effect of Artemisia annua during surgery (M Onimus et al., Med Aromat Plants 2013, 2:125), Patrick Ogwang on prophylaxy (P Ogwang et al., Brit J Pharmac Res. 2011, 1, 124-132 and in Trop J Pharmac Res. 2012, 13, 445-453) and Omar Gueye on ex vivo trials (O Gueye et al., Afr J Bioch Res. 2013, 7, 107-113) and those presented by Rosine Chougouo from Cameroon at the MIM conference at Nairobi in October 2009.

The extraordinary results of the large scale, randomized, double blind trials in Maniema by the team of Dr Jerôme Munyangi confirm all these preliminary, partial results and leave little doubt: herbal treatment with Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra is superior to treatment with the ACTs Coartem or Coarsucam.

The South is going to win this battle against the North and save its children from a lucrative genocide

Submitted by Lucile Cornet-Vernet (not verified) on

WHO should have done this trial a long time ago...Daily Artemisia herbal tea save lives for nothing, no money or at least not. Who get interest by carrying on medecine aigainst Malaria which create drug resistance and cost hundreds of millions dollars ? When this criminal hypocrisy will end ? Wake up everybody ! Artemisia annua and afra Herbal tea work much better than ACT ! Artemisia afra has NO artemisinin and cure malaria ... Yes it does and this trial prove it ! We have to change our mind : Herbal tea can cure ... Wake up !

Submitted by Kizito Richard (not verified) on

I have been living in a rural Uganda community where Artemis planted, what should be the best practice to apply this useful plant.
Kindly avail me what should be the best methods and why.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Our partners who run the successfull clinical trials with Artemisia tea in Maniema were invited to present these results in a public conference in RDCongo. The conference was confronted with opposition and lobbying by Bigpharma.
The conference finally took place under military escort.

A month before, during the trials in Maniema one of the medical doctors who run the trials had to be hospitalized. An obvious attempt had been made to kill him with poison.
We admire the courage of these young African doctors. A team of 7 African universities is behind them, a team of 3 universities in Southafrica, several universities and medical associations in Europe and thousands of Africans who have seen that Artemisia herbal treatment saved their lives at no cost.

We had suffered a similar prohibition in Burundi. The local association ALUMA and the association IFBV-BELHERB from Europe had organized a conference on the Malaria day of April 25. 2014. The conference was canceled by the local health authorities under influence from the Bigpharma lobby, on the day before the event !

We all ask Bigpharma to stop these ridiculous manoeuvers. Or is WHO, their watchdog, repeating the unfamous attempt of the Vatican to eliminate Galileo. In those dark ages it was only hampering the wealth of the Medicis. In our civilized century this greed threatens the live of millions of children.
Pierre Lutgen

Since Michel Onimus trials in RCA we used successfully Artemisia Annua since many years to prevent post-operative malaria during our surgical missions in Tchad.
Artemisia Annua is efficient against Malaria !

Since Michel Onimus trials in RCA we used successfully Artemisia Annua since many years to prevent post-operative malaria during our surgical missions in Tchad.
Artemisia Annua is efficient against Malaria !

Submitted by Guy Mergeai (not verified) on

The trial criticized by the health authorities of the DRC was conducted according to a very robust scientific methodology and its results confirm those obtained less formally by many field workers in other parts of the world.

Science is based on conducting experiments not on dogma. The fact that the tea of Artemisia afra is as effective as that of Artemisia annua proves that artemisinin is not essential to treat malaria and that other active ingredients present in numererous species of Artemisisa play a role. Pretending that Artemisia tea can promote the development of resistance to ACT is thus totally fallacious.

The safety of Artemisia teas being documented for many years, nothing should prevent their widespread use to save thousands of lives.

For all this, what is happening in Kinshasa is outrageous.

Guy Mergeai, PhD

Submitted by Michel ONIMUS (not verified) on

It seems that we are facing a chronic very unfair opposition from official administrations about the use of artemisia annua tea for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. WHO stresses the importance of large-scale randomized objective trials for evaluation of the effectiveness of tea preparation compared to ACT. Actually a very recent clinical double blinded randomized trial is just under publication. It was conducted in RDC and included a very large group of 1000 patients. This is probably the larger study available to-day evaluating the artemisia annua tea in malaria. The results definitely confirm that the tea is more effective than ACT and this trial brings very strong arguments for developping the use of artemisia annua.

WHO should modify its statement and no further prohibit use of Artemisia annua tea as an effective (and moreover unexpensive and easily available) way of treatment of malaria.

Submitted by Philippe ANDRIEUX (not verified) on

J'accuse !!

Le terrorisme sanitaire existe !
Le terrorisme sanitaire ne s'appelle pas DAECH mais BIGPHARMA !
BIGPHARMA comprend dans sa mafia l'OMS, Institut Pasteur, MSF.
Bigpharma corrompt les autorités sanitaires pour que ses produits restent en tête de gondole.
Bigpharma menace les comités d'écoles de santé en Afrique pour qu'ils désapprouvent les jeunes chercheurs africains qui s'investissent corps et âmes dans les alternatives thérapeutiques contre le paludisme entre autre avec l'artémisia plante totum.
Bigpharma par la voix de l'OMS menace de suspendre l'appui et l'assistance aux ministères de la santé s'ils ne sévissent pas contre ses jeunes chercheurs qui s'investissent dans la lutte contre un génocide programmé au nom de l'intérêt financier pur et dur.
Ceci n'est pas une fiction, ceci est la réalité actuellement en RDC !

Nous médecins au service de la santé des peuples nous accusons BIGPHARM de manipulations politico-financières au détriment de l'être humain et à l'encontre de toute éthique.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

A recent paper highlights the neurotoxic effects of AZT on developing and adult neurogenesis (M Demir, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2015, 6-93). This is another disastrous side effect of these drugs (see the blog “Antiretrovirals and antimalarials: a deadly mix” on
The authors employed in vitro and in vivo models of mouse neurogenesis in order to assess the effects of AZT on developing and adult neurogenesis. AZT reduces the expansion potential of neural stem/progenitor cells by inducing senescence. AZT reduces neurosphere size. AZT severily attenuates neuroblast production. These effects are mirrored in vivo, in utero, perturbing prenatal and postnatal neurogenesis.
It is surprising that little attention has been paid to these effects. They may have clinical implications pertaining to cognitive deficits. It has indeed been reported that long-time delivery of AZT is associated with poor neurocognitive performance in HIV patients (MM Marra et al., AIDS, 2009, 23, 1359-1366).
Could it be that microcephaly and neuro-immune deficiency is caused by an antiviral drug and not by a virus?

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

At this stage it must be clearly documented that with our African partners we had made all possible efforts to obtain the agreement for clinical trials with Artemisia annua. On January 2012 we made our way to Canossa, i.e, the WHO offices at Geneva. The meeting was attended by Andrea Bosman, Peter Olumese, Pascal Ringwald, Amy Barette, Charlotte Rasmussen, Marian Warsame, Silvia Schwarte, Lise Riopel from WHO, by Jean-Jacques Schul, Yanick Arlabosse-Titz and Blaise Guiakora from IDAY and Pierre Lutgen from IFBV-BELHERB. We presented a power point with all the encouraging results already obtained in small scale trials in Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Cameroon, The Gambia. We left the meeting full of hope but a month later we received a written document with a formal prohibition any further clinical trials with Artemisia annua.

On January 15, 2012 we had already had a meeting at the Institute for Tropical Diseases (ITG) in Antwerp with Jef Van den Ende. We did not expect very much from that particular meeting knowing that in a Belgian law (29.7.1997) Artemisia annua is classified as dangerous herb. In 2008 Dr P Wery from the ITG had violently opposed our work with Artemisia annua in Africa in the magazine Rotary Contact. And in 2010 the Fonds National de la Recherche in Luxembourg had rejected the funding of a Ph D thesis grant for Omar Gueye in Senegal.

The opinion of a Belgian expert had killed the project: “This kind of project could never be published in a scientific journal. Supporting such a project is certainly NOT something that will give Luxembourg a good reputation in science”.
Pierre Lutgen

Submitted by Dominique Chardonnet (not verified) on

"Ce monde et ses dirigeants ne cessent de m'inquiéter. Leur combat contre l'objectivité et les règles qu'ils nous imposent tourne à la bêtise et nous conduit furtivement à la tragédie. Des disciples de la déontologie médicale sont aujourd'hui menacés simplement parce que les résultats de leurs études contredisent les intérêts de la puissante organisation des laboratoires pharmaceutiques soutenue elle-même par une espèce d'oligarchie internationale réunie au sein de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé.

Les résultats des travaux réalisés par des chercheurs accrédités au Congo confirment les avantages d'une phytothérapie efficace contre le paludisme en regard des inconvénients d'une bi-thérapie (ACT) qui n'est pas formellement remise en cause par cette étude puisque la-dite bi-thérapie permet aussi la guérison de ce terrible fléau. Comment comprendre alors que des voix s'élèvent, que des censures s'imposent, que des manoeuvres d'intimidation se forment autour des auteurs d'une étude qui ne révèle finalement que de possibles complémentarités? Que les adeptes des ACT se rassurent et acceptent l'existence d'une thérapie simple produisant le même effet, à savoir la guérison.

Que l'on puisse s'en prendre aujourd'hui aux démonstrateurs de cette réalité est purement intolérable et indigne du genre humain. Les Autorités quelles qu'elles soient doivent s'insurger (pour le moins autant que le soussigné) et réagir avec fermeté contre toute forme d'intimidation et d'obscurantisme scientifique.

S'il devait se produire quoi que ce soit de fâcheux pour les auteurs de cette étude au seul motif de ses résultats, je ne me le pardonnerais jamais et je m'engagerais personnellement, le cas échéant, à saisir les instances internationales afin de rétablir le droit et réclamer justice.

Dominique Chardonnet

Président de « Palumisia Sénégal »" Suisse

Submitted by ROCHDI Fatima (not verified) on

What is happening in Kinshasa regarding the verified opportunity to save lives at low cost and the choice made to make money and protect the private interrests of the corporation is a shame.
I support the research team and condamn the position taken by the authorities in RDC and by WHO.

Artemisia annua : Soutien au Dr. Jérôme et son équipe à Maniema, RDC
La nature nous a fait don de plusieurs espèces de plantes pour nous nourrir, nous soigner…depuis des millénaires. Les vertus médicinales de l’Artemisia sont connues depuis si longtemps qu'on en a retrouvé des écrits sur un papyrus égyptien remontant à 1600 avant J.C et dans un texte de l’Ancien Testament. Elle était connue et recommandée par les Celtes ; les Arabes l'utilisaient et les médecins de l'Antiquité la considéraient comme la panacée.
Mais il y a des hommes qui ne pensent qu’à amasser de l’argent, sur le dos des pauvres, en les forçant à utiliser des remèdes chimiques au lieu des herbes médicinales offertes gratuitement par la nature.
Nous sommes surpris et tristes d'apprendre que sous l’influence de lobbys extérieurs les auteurs des études sur Artemisia annua en RDC ne soient pas bien écoutés par les autorités de Maniema et la représentation nationale de l’OMS.
Séverin Tchibozo, CRGB, Godomey, BENIN

Submitted by emile schmitz (not verified) on

In 2013 Frank Van der Kooy published a review paper in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology entitled "The complexity of medicinal plants: The traditional Artemisia annua formulation, current status and future perspectives"
He compared the positions of those who promote the herbal medicine with those who sell ACTs . He invited partners of both approaches to join the discussion.
In his acknowledgements he states: we would like to thank Dr. Pierre Lutgen from IFBV-BELHERB and Dr. Martin Hirt from Anamed for comments on this manuscript. Unfortunately no comments were received from the WHO African office.
Unfortunately everybody agrees that science is asking questions and confronting opinions and findings.

Emile Schmitz

Submitted by Irene Teis on

We just received the following message from Jerome Munyangi who run with Michel Idumbo the successfull clinical trials Artemisia vs ACT in Maniema:

Bonjour , Juste vous informer que Michel vient d'être suspendu de son poste de médecin directeur.
L'inévitable est arrivé.

These two young African doctors knew the risks they were taking. We admire them. The future of Africa is in their hands, not in those of the subservient medical staff in Geneva.

Submitted by Paul NYEMB NTOOGUE (not verified) on

Je suis vraiment très amusés par ce que vivent des chercheurs comme Jerome Munyangi et Michel Idumbo qui, avec d'autres dynamiques, se sont engagés à combattre le paludisme en Afrique de manière efficiente et sure. Qu'ils aient des ennuis de la part d'une certaine maffia qui tient encore les populations africaines sous le joug des produits de firmes pharmaceutiques occidentales n'est qu'une abjection. Ces firmes qui font pressions sur nos autorités ne constatent elles donc pas que l'Afrique change depuis peu et les populations qui connaissent déjà la vérité sur bien de complots contre elles, n'ignorent plus aujourd'hui l'importance des plantes médicinales comme l'artémisia annua?
Nous leur conseillons d'arrêter les pressions sur ces chercheurs dont les travaux sont plutôt connus des populations et salués par plusieurs communautés et dans bien de pays. Les révolution ne seront pas toujours à votre avantages

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

Suite à un début de publication d'une grande étude randomisée concernant le traitement du paludisme par les plantes (Artémisia annua et Artémisia afra) sur une grande échelle (1000 patients) dans la province de Maniema en RDC; étude menée par Jérôme MUNYANGI chercheur en biologie moléculaire et docteur Michel IDUMBO responsable sanitaire de la province de Maniema, soutenus par un comité d'école de santé publique.

Depuis ce début de publication la guerre de l'ombre a commencé.
• Jérôme MUNYANGI a été victime d'un empoisonnement qui a failli lui coûter la vie
• le comité d'école de santé publique est menacé si des mesures ne sont pas prises à l'encontre des auteurs de l'étude
• l'OMS menace de suspendre l'appui et l'assistance au ministère de santé du Maniéma si des mesures ne sont pas prises contre les auteurs de l'étude
• Le docteur Michel IDUMBO à été démis de ses fonctions.

Comment interpréter ses manipulations politiques alors que l'étude est en conformité avec les procédures de l'OMS comparant Artémisia annua et Artémisia afra avec les ACT (Coartem et ASAQ)

Tous les paramètres des traitements à base des plantes artémisia annua et afra étaient significativement supérieurs aux ACT:
 baisse plus rapide de la fièvre, de la parasitémie.
 absence de parasite à j25 pour 99.5% des traitements par artémisia contre 79.5% pour ACT.
 une absence totale d'effet secondaire pour les traitements par Artemisia alors que pour les 498 patients sous ACT, 210 ont présenté des effets secondaires:(diarrhée, nausée, prurit, hypogycémie)
 absence totale de gamétocyte à J7 pour les traitements par artémisia annua et afra.

Ceci est un grand espoir pour l'éradication du paludisme.

Un essai identique a été réalisé au Bénin à l'université d'Abomey en collaboration avec les universités de Louvain et de Liège (Belgique); étude sur 130 patients avec des résultats similaires.
Le Bénin recommande fortement aux pays africains de remplacer les ACT par la tisane d'artémisia.

Ces études confirment les résultats obtenus par l'association IFBV - Belherb (Luxembourg) et ses partenaires dans de nombreux essais à petite échelle dans plusieurs pays africains au cours des 6 dernières années. L'efficacité a toujours était supérieure à 95% et l'efficacité de la prophylaxie a été remarquée et documentée.

Comment interpréter cette négations des faits par l'OMS sinon par une manipulation politico financière de Bigpharma.

Les résistances aux ACT existent depuis 2008 en Asie et aussi dans 10 pays africains du Sud Est ainsi que dans les grands ports africains

200 millions de personnes souffrent du paludisme.
800 000 personnes en meurent chaque année dont 90% sont des enfants et 80% des décès concernent l'Afrique.
Le paludisme coûte 1.7 points de croissance à l'Afrique par an.

Comment ne pas s'insurger face à ce gangstérisme pharmaceutique dont l'avidité financière menace la vie de millions d'enfants.
Les seigneurs de la guerre existent; ils s'appellent Big brothers.
Les seigneurs du médicament existent; ils s'appellent Big pharma.
Cette puissante organisation des laboratoires pharmaceutique est soutenue par une oligarchie internationale réunie au sein de l'OMS Organisation Mondiale de la Santé.

Philippe, médecin à l'île d'Yeu

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

Toll, dass es mal wieder einen schriftlichen Aufstand gibt gegen die Nein Sager des Grundgesetzes: „Das Recht eines jeden Menschen auf Gesundheit“.
Die von der Natur uns geschenkten Heilkräuter, wie unter anderem auch Artemisia annua und afra, mit den vielseitigen Wirkstoffen dürfen den Menschen als Tee Anwendung nicht untersagt werden, genau wie ich die Heilkräuter Kamille, Melisse, Salbei usw. für meine Gesunderhaltung verwende. Wer unsere Naturheilkräuter zur Anwendung unserer Gesundheit boykottieren oder behindern will ist ein Menschenverächter in meinem Sinn. Ich weiß nicht ob die Verantwortlichen mit so einem Gefühl ruhig schlafen können?

Hannelore Klabes

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

Los resultados de la aplicación de la Artemisia Annua cultivada en Centro Poblado Andino de Monchacap, Provincia de Otuzco, Departamento de La Libertad - Perú como Infusión y como Sahumerio, ejecutados en los siguientes proyectos y en zonas endémicas de la malaria como el Distrito de Laredo, Departamento de La Libertad, Región Costa, los Distritos de Abancay y Tamburgo en el Departamento de Apurímac, Región Sierra y en el Distrito de Bagua Chica del Departamento de Amazonas, Región de la Selva, confirman los logros obtenidos por la ASOCIACION IFBV BELHERB Y SUS SOCIOS en muchos ensayos diversos a pequeña escala en Perú y varios países africanos durante los últimos 8 años.

Con una eficiencia terapéutica siempre alta que ha sido documentada.
Los resúmenes o documentos elaborados por las contrapartes como la ONG CIADES de Peru en todas estas aplicaciones, experimentos y ensayos están disponibles en nuestros registros bajo petición.

Raúl Fernando Pérez Villar

Presidente Ejecutivo

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

The frustration of the young Africans who are fighting the battle against malaria with their means is understandable. Indeed the position of WHO is confusing. The document “WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023” encourages herbal medicine but is contradicted by “WHO Position Statement (June 2012). Effectiveness of Non-Pharmaceutical Forms of Artemisia annua L. against malaria” which prohibits the use of this herb.

The latter is based on assumptions and precautions which have meanwhile been resolved. The content of dry leaves is stable for at least 3 years, even up to 10 when stored in a dry and ventilated place. Artemisia annua infusions or capsules with powdered leaves do not lead to resistance, they even can overcome resistance induced by ACTs, as demonstrated by Pamela Weathers in the US. The dose of artemisinin of 20 mg/kg as prescribed in WHO/MAL/98.1086 appears to be by far too high. 100 x lower concentrations delivered by the whole plant are very efficient. The plant Artemisia afra which does not contain artemisinin is as efficient as Artemisia annua, and in the recent large scale, double blind, randomized trial in Maniema-Congo no residual parasitemia, no resistance could be detected after 28 days. All these encouraging findings are substantiated by numerous peer reviewed papers or open documents.

The role of WHO is to coordinate all these efforts. Maybe it is time for this international organization to convene a meeting of the parties, to call the African research teams and European research laboratories around a table.
Our door is open.

Lucile Cornet-Vernet
Pierre Lutgen

Submitted by Keith Lindsey on

I would like to thank Pierre Lutgen and all other colleagues who have conducted clinical trials on Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra. Regarding Artemisia annua their results echo the comments I have received from many people at the grass roots in several African countries. I am particularly excited by the results with Artemisia afra, which is indigenous in much of sub Saharan Africa. Many have asked my advice regarding malaria treatment with A. afra, and I have always suggested that A. annua is probably safer because it has been the subject of much more research.
I am delighted that I can now recommend with confidence that they cultivate and use their own local Artemisia afra to treat malaria and thus end their reliance on imported seeds.

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

25 000 children are killed every day in tropical countries by malaria, diarrhea, leishmaniasis, bilharziosis, Trypanosoma, Chagas, dengue, toxoplasma, tuberculosis…
This hecatomb is ignored by the media because these neglected diseases in neglected populations are of little interest.

But every 2 years the media jump on a hype launched by Bigpharma and immediately orchestrated by WHO, very soon joined by UNICEF and MSF and Bill&Melinda. Always the risk is assessed in its incidence for people from the North, be it tourists or children. When enough money has been collected from our governments, enough drugs like Tamiflu have been sold the hype and the disease disappear.

But a finding like the one described in this blog “Breaking news from Congo” will not appear in our press. It would kill the business with pharmaceutical companies.

Thiery Guiakoro

Submitted by Irene Teis on


The impact of organophosphates on head circumference is known since 2004. A study involving 404 neanates in the U.S. found a significant positive trend between head circumference, in utero pesticide exposure and the concentration of organophospate metabolites in offspring (GS Berkowitz et al., Envir Health Perspect. 2004, 112-3).
The impact of low level exposure to organosphosphates on human reproduction and survival (RJ Peiris-John et al., Trans Royal Soc Trop Med and Hyg. 2008, 102, 239-245) has also been studied in Sri Lanka. During fetal growth and early childhood the vulnerabilty to organophosphates is high. The review raises concerns that exposure at levels currently regarded as save adversely affect human reproductive function and survival.

Of greater concern are the findings from in vitro and animal studies that low-dose exposure to embryonic cells or animals in utero or in early postnatal life can produce neurochemical and neurobehavioral changes, including decreased DNA synthesis, decreased cell proliferation, changes in synoptic proliferation, and reflex impairment. This has led to the suggestion that the developing brain provides a window of particular vulnerability to pesticide exposure during the fetal and childhood period. A study involving 381 infants in California showed that high urinary organophosphate metabolite levels were associated with an increase in abnormal reflexes (JG Young et al., Neurotoxicology 2005, 206, 199-209). Another study reports a significant correlation between low levels of urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral function in U.S. farmers (J Rothlein et al., Environ Health Perspect. 2006 ; 114(5): 691–696)


In the US indoor use of organophosphates is prohibited since 2000. But sales of the same pesticides are booming in Africa and South America, with the blessiing of WHO, Global Fund, USAID and Bill&Melinda.
WHO recommends the organophosphates malathion (Class 2A carcinogen), fenitrothion and piriphosmethyl for indoor residual spraying (IRS).
In 2013 a large scale (IRS) with the organophosphate Pirimiphos was run in Benin, sponsored by the Gates Foundation (M Rowland et al., PlosONE, 2013, doi 10137)
A more recent IRS trial worth £1 880 990 with long-lasting organophosphate, run by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine again sponsored to a large extent by Bill Gates.
Irene Teis

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

Irene, (or moderators) please delete this post. It is inaccurate, misleading and sensationalist.

There is no evidence what-so-ever that Zika related microcephaly has any associated with any pesticides.

Moreover, the pesticide (INCORRECTLY) implicated in Zika associated microcephaly is not even an organophosphate.

This site is dedicated to professional, evidence-based discussions, and not misinformed propaganda.

Bart G.J. Knols's picture
Submitted by Bart G.J. Knols on

The moderators have contacted Irene about this comment. Thank you and best wishes, Bart

Submitted by Irene Teis on

Hereafter the fulltext abstracts of the 3 papers quoted for neurotoxical effects of pesticides and organophosphates.
If my interpretation is incorrect the blog should indeed be removed. But any hypothesis in science should first be questionned and than be proven to be wrong, dixit Karl Popper.

Environ Health Perspect. 2006 May;114(5):691-6.
Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and non-agricultural Hispanic workers.
Rothlein J1, Rohlman D, Lasarev M, Phillips J, Muniz J, McCauley L.
Our understanding of the health risks of farmworkers exposed to pesticides in their work and home environments is rapidly increasing, although studies designed to examine the possible neurobehavioral effects of low-level chronic pesticide exposure are limited. We measured dialkyl phosphate urinary metabolite levels, collected environmental dust samples from a subset of homes, obtained information on work practices, and conducted neurobehavioral tests on a sample of farmworkers in Oregon. Significant correlations between urinary methyl metabolite levels and total methyl organophosphate (azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion) house dust levels were observed. We found the neurobehavioral performance of Hispanic immigrant farmworkers to be lower than that observed in a nonagricultural Hispanic immigrant population, and within the sample of agricultural workers there was a positive correlation between urinary organophosphate metabolite levels and poorer performance on some neurobehavioral tests. These findings add to an increasing body of evidence of the association between low levels of pesticide exposure and deficits in neurobehavioral performance.

Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Mar;112(3):388-91.
In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference.
Berkowitz GS1, Wetmur JG, Birman-Deych E, Obel J, Lapinski RH, Godbold JH, Holzman IR, Wolff MS.
Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are conducting a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of mothers and infants delivered at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Pesticide exposure was assessed by a prenatal questionnaire administered to the mothers during the early third trimester as well as by analysis of maternal urinary pentachlorophenol levels and maternal metabolites of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. Neither the questionnaire data nor the pesticide metabolite levels were associated with any of the fetal growth indices or gestational age. However, when the level of maternal PON1 activity was taken into account, maternal levels of chlorpyrifos above the limit of detection coupled with low maternal PON1 activity were associated with a significant but small reduction in head circumference. In addition, maternal PON1 levels alone, but not PON1 genetic polymorphisms, were associated with reduced head size. Because small head size has been found to be predictive of subsequent cognitive ability, these data suggest that chlorpyrifos may have a detrimental effect on fetal neurodevelopment among mothers who exhibit low PON1 activity.

Neurotoxicology. 2005 Mar;26(2):199-209.
Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates.
Young JG1, Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Bradman A, Pedersen L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Furlong CE, Holland NT.
The detrimental effects of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure on neurodevelopment have been shown in animals. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between in utero and early postnatal OP exposure and neonatal neurobehavior in humans, as measured by seven clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). We assessed 381 infants < or = 2 months old and born to women participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a longitudinal, birth cohort study of low-income, Latina women living in the agricultural community of the Salinas Valley, California. Exposure to OP pesticides was determined by urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites, including dimethyl and diethylphosphate metabolites, measured twice during pregnancy (M = 14 and 26 weeks gestation) and once post-delivery (M = 7 days postpartum). The relationship between exposure and BNBAS performance was examined for the entire sample and stratified by the median age at assessment, 3 days. We observed a significant association between exposure and the reflex cluster for the entire sample and for infants >3 days old (n = 184). Among the >3 day old infants, increasing average prenatal urinary metabolite levels were associated with both an increase in number of abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted beta = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.82; dimethyls: adjusted beta = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.69; diethyls: adjusted beta = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.64), and the proportion of infants with more than three abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.5, 16.1; dimethyls: adjusted OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 9.8; diethyls: adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 9.9). No detrimental associations were found between postnatal urinary metabolite levels and any of the BNBAS clusters for infants < or = 3 or >3 days old at assessment. Whether neonatal reflex functioning is predictive of neuropsychological functioning as the child matures will continue to be evaluated in this birth cohort.

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

It is disturbing that scientific papers quoted on are so violently attacked and that the authors are asked to delete them.
Chlorpyrifos, the main pesticide incriminated for microcephaly, in the Berkowitz paper, is an organophosphate.
Chlorpyrifos is massively used in Brazil, We should show empathy for the
4000 mothers who have children with microcephaly and not reject any hypothesis to study possible causes.
Chlorpyrifos should be banned, be it only by precaution. Because there are numerous papers which describe its neurotoxic effects.

: A systematic review · María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada , Boris A. Lucero
doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2013.09.003 [5]
Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to
attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal
reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of development.

Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Volume 34, Issue 2 [6], March–April 2012, Pages 232–241
· Theodore A. Slotkin [7], , · Frederic J. Seidler
Developmental organophosphate exposure reduces the numbers of neural cells, contributing to neurobehavioral deficits. We administered chlorpyrifos or diazinon to newborn rats on postnatal days 1–4, in doses straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition, and evaluated gene expression in the cell cycle and apoptosis pathways on postnatal day 5. Both organophosphates evoked transcriptional changes in 20–25% of the genes in each category; chlorpyrifos and diazinon targeted the same genes, with similar magnitudes of change, as evidenced by high concordance. Furthermore, the same effects were obtained with doses above or below the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition, indicating a mechanism unrelated to anticholinesterase actions. We then evaluated the effects of chlorpyrifos in undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells and found even greater targeting of cell cycle and apoptosis genes, affecting up to 40% of all genes in the pathways. Notably, the genes affected in undifferentiated cells were not concordant with those in differentiating cells, pointing to dissimilar outcomes dependent on developmental stage. The in vitro model successfully identified 60–70% of the genes affected by chlorpyrifos in vivo, indicating that the effects are exerted directly on developing neural cells. Our results show that organophosphates target the genes regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis in the developing brain and in neuronotypic cells in culture, with the pattern of vulnerability dependent on the specific stage of development. Equally important, these effects do not reflect actions on cholinesterase and operate at exposures below the threshold for any detectable inhibition of this enzyme

Bart G.J. Knols's picture
Submitted by Bart G.J. Knols on

Dear all,
The original focus of this posting was on Artemisia. Now you are taking this in an entirely new direction with a discussion on the possible side effects of pesticide use. May I ask you to start a separate forum topic on this, so that the discussion on Artemisia can continue here.
Many thanks,

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

In answer to your question posted on malariaworld:

Quote "I have been living in a rural Uganda community where Artemisia is planted, what should be the best practice to apply this useful plant.
Kindly avail me what should be the best methods and why"

You are fortunate to have one of the best Artemisia experts in Uganda, Pr Patrick Ogwang from the Makerere university.
He has published several scientific papers on this subject.
You may contact him at or
He has also developed the prophylactic product ARTAVOL

Avec tambours et trompettes, Bill Gates associé pour l’occasion à la Grande Bretagne ont récemment annoncé un plan de plusieurs milliards de dollars pour éradiquer la malaria… Le Cameroun va bénéficier d’une subvention de 77 millions d’euros du Fonds Mondial pour distribuer 15,8 millions de moustiquaires…

Sans trop s’attarder sur les liens étroits qui unissent la richissime fondation Bill & Melinda Gates et l’industrie pharmaceutique (+/-1,5 milliards de dollars d’actions), sans trop s’attarder sur les flops des précédentes distributions de moustiquaires au Cameroun ni sur ses effets secondaires néfastes scientifiquement prouvés, on est en droit de se demander qui sont les grands gagnants de ces campagnes coûteuses. Je vous laisse à vos réflexions !

HUBERT (de Luxembourg)

Submitted by Irene Teis on

What we learned from participants at the Pharmacognosy conference Aug- 29-31 at Sao Paolo is disturbing. The conference ended in chaos.

A professor from Ireland qualified clinical trials made by African researchers and medical doctors as appalling. These large scale, randomized, double blind trials with Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra gave exciting results. They showed the superiority against malaria of the plants over artemisinin combined therapy ACT drugs, without any side effects, any recurrence and complete absence of gametocytemia on day 28 after the treatment (see www.malariaworld.or « Breaking News from Clinical Trials with Artemisia Plants »). And these plants are also very efficient against Bilharzia, Tuberculosis and Buruli ulcer as trials run in 2016 have shown in RDCongo, with the blessing of the health authorities and full-fledged ethical approvals.

At the entire conference Africans were the only speakers who presented large scale double blind, randomized in vivo clinical trials in several African countries against several tropical diseases with Artemisia plants. They are part of an international network of 17 universities in partnership with IFBV-BELHERB and M4L.

Most of the other presentations were dealing with analytical work or in vitro trials with plants from tropical countries. Northern laboratories pay visits to tropical countries to learn about the traditional use of plants, return to their universities, fiddle with these plants to find molecules which can be used by Bigpharma in monotherapy.

Professors and researchers from European universities still consider their own approach, their cleverness far superior to that of Africans. In a public conference they lecture them like elementary school teachers. With contempt.

It is easy to understand that the African breakthroughs with phytotherapy frustrate and exasperate Bigpharma. They will lose their juicy business with tropical diseases.

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

Pharmaceutical colonialism
If this Irish Professor coordinating the Pharmacognosy conference is from the Trinity College, or Collegium Sanctae Individuae Trinitatis, he must know this sentence from the Bible “ Deposuit potentes de sede, et exaltavit humiles” : He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and raised up those who are lowly.