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Miles Markus's blog

P. vivax Malaria Recurrence and Human Nature

October 13, 2021 - 17:03 -- Miles Markus

People who did not believe the non-reinfection, non-circulating merozoite-related P. vivax malarial recurrence concept [explained here:] are now quietly starting to echo it.

However, it is interesting to note that this has directly or indirectly been done by the authors of some papers while studiously avoiding inclusion of any reference to where the idea (prediction) came from in the first place, thereby revealing their true colours.

Plasmodium vivax: Relapses or Recrudescences?

September 24, 2021 - 03:10 -- Miles Markus

For the past 40 years, we have readily ascribed recurrences of Plasmodium vivax malaria to hypnozoite activation.

But during this 40-year period, we have been completely unaware that there are extremely large numbers of merozoites (compared to only a few hypnozoites) hiding outside the peripheral bloodstream – not only sequestered but happily multiplying extravascularly in tissues.

New Plasmodium vivax Biology

September 10, 2021 - 01:41 -- Miles Markus

In 2012, the following remark appeared in the Journal of Travel Medicine (reference 44 in the publication for which the link is provided below):

"Malariologists need to reassess the conventional view that plasmodial habitats in humans are only liver and blood and be more open to the concept of there perhaps being additional parasite reservoirs."

COMMENTARY: Plasmodium in the Human Spleen

June 1, 2021 - 04:13 -- Miles Markus

The remarkable discovery of considerable plasmodial life cycle activity in the human spleen has been reported [1,2]. There is also recent non-microscopic evidence suggestive of malaria parasite accumulation there [3].

Plasmodium vivax Malarial Recurrence Theory Vindicated

May 29, 2021 - 20:03 -- Miles Markus

The idea that the non-circulating parasite origin of Plasmodium vivax malarial recurrence is both hypnozoites [1,2] and merozoites (not hypnozoites only) dates from 2011 [3,4]. The history appears in Table 1 in [4]. There is recent (and superb) evidence that my decade-old, bimodal recurrence hypothesis must be correct.

P. vivax: important new data on homologous recurrences

February 7, 2021 - 09:03 -- Miles Markus

Here is something of fundamental malariological interest:

A past suggestion is that both early and late homologous recurrences of Plasmodium vivax malaria can have a non-circulating merozoite origin [1–4].

There is now revealing new (February 2021) evidence which supports this idea. Some post-28-day recurrences that took place during a recent study appeared to be recrudescences rather than relapses [5]. Thus, it seems likely that a combination of the two types of recurrence can occur after 28 days.

Is temporal Plasmodium vivax malarial recurrence information useful?

December 30, 2020 - 23:12 -- Miles Markus

A lot of attention has been paid over the years to when exactly recurrent clinical Plasmodium vivax malarial episodes take place, both old and recent literature on this subject often being cited by authors today. Does this recurrence information prove much, however? In other words, how important is it to know details of the timing and frequency of non-reinfection recurrences when these recurrences are of unknown origin (as explained below)?

When are the words "malarias" and "plasmodia" incorrect?

December 2, 2020 - 16:41 -- Miles Markus

The misused plural words "malarias" and "plasmodia" have previously been mentioned in the MalariaWorld Newsletter (the former only in passing). Here, I highlight the usage problem by expanding on the subject.

How Many Cases of Plasmodium vivax Malaria are Relapses?

November 17, 2020 - 22:35 -- Miles Markus

Are up to 80% or more of detectable Plasmodium vivax malarial recurrences relapses (a relapse being a hypnozoite-mediated recurrence)? This is a topical matter and a very interesting question.

Importance of Serology in Plasmodium vivax Infection

November 4, 2020 - 01:31 -- Miles Markus

Attention has been drawn to the use of serology for revealing subclinical Plasmodium vivax malaria that can lead to ongoing transmission of the disease in human communities if parasite carriers are not treated [1].


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