At the time of writing, the World Cup is well underway and with the quarter-finals about to begin the competition is heating up. So too will any fans who’ve been unlucky enough to catch malaria! So what can the World Cup tell us about the global malaria picture?
One of the weaknesses in our fight against malaria is that we are missing the opportunity to attack other mosquito-transmitted diseases. It is the weakness of any "vertical" approach to disease control.
We are all aware of the Stinky Feet effect, in which human skin odors attract female anophelines in a dark bedroom. And to many of us, this suggests that we should wash our feet before going to bed.
Now, Mescher of ETH Zurich, De Moraes and others - in a recent article in Proc. of the National Academy - indicated that mice infected with Plasmodia are more attractive to anophelines than ordinary mice. SO
If this evolved as a durable trait in anopheline mosquitoes, it means it conferred either a survival advantage, or a reproductive advantage to the mosquito.
An additional element in the fight against mosquitoes has already been used in the tropics, both to flush out snails which transmit schistosomiasis, and to flush out certain species of anopheline mosquitoes which inhabit streams in SE Asia.
African Malaria Dialogue features 2013 Jerusalem Declaration about fighting Malaria in Africa
Dialogue on 18 June 2014
Our usual informal luncheon turned out even better than expected. We met in the outer courtyard of the restaurant ‘Au Bon Pain’ in Harvard Square of Cambridge, Massachusetts, on a beautiful summer day.
- A global elimination plan, supported by international health bodies.
- Thorough costings and tools to support the business case.
- An approach that is positioned within a development framework.
- Core elimination advocacy messages.
- Provision of advocacy tools for partners.
- Extensive and effective community engagement.
- Strong partnerships
In April the US PMI issued their 8th Annual Report to the US Congress on their malaria suppression operations in Africa. In the first table of the Appendix One of this report they gave their total expenditures for Africa, and also the coverage they had in each country with their spray operations. Adjusting these figures to reflect only their African operations, it appears that there have been two sudden jumps in their per capita costs.
TWO INVESTMENT APPROACHES
As a malaria professional you are supposed to keep track of what is happening in our field. That's nothing new. As scholars, researchers, policy makers, doctors, students, etc. we read about new developments, we read scientific articles, and follow the news. And in doing so we are familiar with who is doing what, follows what approach, and is seeking for new solutions to end our common enemy. Again, that is nothing new. But allow us to challenge you...
MIT ALUMNI SUGGEST MALARIA ELIMINATION STRATEGIES FOR AFRICA
7 JUNE 2014
At a Reunion of the Class of 1959 in June 2014 under the Great Dome of MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, several suggestions were developed for an Exit Strategy from the fight against malaria in Africa. Malaria currently kills about a million Africans per year, mostly children who succumb to the extreme fevers transmitted by night-biting mosquitoes.
Roll Back Malaria today released a small video about football player Didier Drogba - who suffered malaria and is now an ambassador for our cause.
We ask our readers: What do you think of this video? Will it serve its purpose? Will it reach its target audience?
We are curious to know your thoughts. Is this good money spent on advocacy or a simplified message only mentioning nets?
The social press release is attached to this blog.
If we limit ourselves to the conventional approaches to fighting malaria - drugs, bednets and biocides - the future looks bleak. It looks like an endless war. The war started about 1950 when DDT and chloroquine looked like perfect weapons. But since then the development of resistance has shown us how ephemeral they were. The mosquitoes began to eat DDT for breakfast, and the malaria parasites learned to swim in chloroquine. Historians are showing us that malaria has incredible tenacity in Africa. We long for a solution to this horrible problem - an Exit Strategy.
I appreciate the publication of my first paper on economic benefits from suppressing malaria in Africa, printed in the MWJ of 2014 v5 n4 and cited on the MWJ webpage. I demonstrated that the return on investment in malaria suppression was about 6.5 to 1, a really good investment, don't you think?
Mass Drug Administration (MDA) is a tantalizing tool that can support elimination efforts and help dramatically knock down malaria prevalence. Why isn’t it more widely used?
by George Jagoe
Almost a century after Dr. Israel Kligler initiated a malaria elimination campaign in Mandate Palestine, the undersigned met in Jerusalem to honour his exemplary approach that consisted of an integrated attack on malaria that ultimately led to its disappearance.
In many ways, the disease burden of malaria in Africa today resembles that of Palestine when Kligler first arrived. His success – a toolbox that included larval mosquito control, swamp drainage, quinine prophylaxis and treatment, community education - played a major role in making the Holy Land habitable and productive.
Learning from Success
Over the past 60 years, conferences on malaria have increased from maybe one per decade to multiple conferences annually. The 1950 Kampala Malaria Conference set the parameters for the 1955 Global Malaria Eradication Programme, followed 40 years later, 1992 and 1996, with the meetings in Dakar and Amsterdam that galvanised WHO and international support to eradicate malaria. Roll Back Malaria, the Global Fund, the Gates Foundation and other major international donors took us to the 21st century goal of malaria elimination.
Rubin Hall, Forchheimer Student Center, Ein-Kerem Campus, Jerusalem
8:30-9:00 Coffee/Tea (reception area adjoining Rubin Hall)
9:00-9:30 CONFERENCE OPENING - GREETINGS:
- Prof. Yehuda Neumark. Director, Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Dr. Sanford F. Kuvin. Founder & Chairman of the International Board, Sanford F. Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Prof. David Lichtstein. Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Dr. Rob Dixon. Deputy Head of Mission, British Embassy in Israel
- Dr. Gabriel E. Alexander. Jewish National Fund/Keren Keyemeth LeIsrael