I am intrigued by the role that consumption of electricity has had in suppressing malaria throughout the world, so I took a quick look at the figures for Africa, to compare.
Recent results obtained at the AlQuds University in partnership with IFBV-BELHERB from Luxembourg show that freshly prepared infusion of Artemisia annua is stronger than chloroquine in the inhibition of beta-hematin (hemozoin) formation. In the infected erythrocyte the malaria parasite generates large quantities of toxic heme which it has to render innocuous by polymerizing it into hemozoin. The mechanism of quinine and all its derivates, chloroquine, amodiaquine operates by inhibiting this hemozoin crystallization.
I was asked by a friend, who is not a malaria scientist (in fact, not a scientist at all) to imagine the following situation:
You were chosen by a malaria endemic country to direct their fight against the disease. The government of the country tells you they will adopt three strategies to fight it, solely based on your recommendations. What would those be?
My name is Mercè and I'm from Barcelona, Spain.
I'm a veterinarian with a tropical medicine master's degree and I work mostly on malaria diagnosis.
Over the past years I have been working in Africa, training laboratory technicians in diagnosis of tropical diseases, especially malaria.
I have also worked with health ministries in the implementation of quality control programs and monitoring of malaria diagnosis.
I have been working as a consultant with various organizations and I am currently looking for work.
A paradigm change
It was always believed that resistance is provoked by antimalarial drugs; they cause plasmodium to evolve and become tougher. Consequently it was important to kill the last parasite to avoid recrudescence. But Andrew Read (Conference Evolution, Utah, June 21-25 2013) finds that in a weakened immune system parasites multiply to extremely high densities. This pool of parasites contains a larger number of mutants, upping the chances of some having greater virulence potential.
No sane African, with due knowledge of history, should try to eradicate Mosquitoes and Malaria, unless they have a sound alternative to defend the continent.
Authors: Constant Kansango Tchandema and Pierre Lutgen
G6DP (glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase) deficiency is a genetic disease which may lead to hemolysis.
WE are astonished that only 50 of the 7917 malaria experts on www.malariaworld.org have an opinion on synthetic artemisinin production and the impact this may have on farmers in poor countries. Somebody sent us yesterday the blog “Why Synthetic Artemisinin Is Still a Bad Idea “ from Jim Thomas of the ETC Group. Hereafter a few excerpts which deserve consideration
A recent paper (K van Acker, J Plaizier, Malaria Journal, 2012-11 Suppl.1) confirms the concern raised by previous publications: “Stability of artemisinin derivatives has so far only been partially investigated and it is unclear how much this contributes to the reports of bad quality or substandard antimalarials” One of the conclusions of this study is that” Artesunate and amodiaquine can only be used in a fixed dose combination if they are physically separated”.
We know in our hearts that economic development and malaria affect each other. And we can make a pretty good guess at the variables involved. Snowden's book on the suppression of malaria in Italy lists them fairly precisely: literacy, education, agricultural productivity, government stability, etc.
For me, the end of malaria will also coincide with the availability of affordable and reliable electricity, and improved housing with metallic screens on the windows and doors.
To all MalariaWorld readers, does anyone know of ANY country that has been certified malaria-free by WHO and where the eradication campaign has been managed or controlled by an outside agency. If yes, please state the country when replying.
It would help a great deal if MalariaWorld readers would reply or comment so that I would know this blog has at least been read or considered. Please don't remain silent. Silence can lead to the equivalent of misinformation in this case.
Either a 'No' or a 'Yes + country' will suffice.
I wish to consider the situations prevailing in those countries where within the last 90 years, malaria had previously been endemic but which countries have since been certified by WHO as malaria-free. In particular, I wish to examine generally whether or not the methods of eradication were initiated/directed/managed/controlled on a daily basis by persons of that country OR by persons from outside agencies.
Sad to see all the usual suspects of funding delays, cutbacks, security concerns, and poor ITN lifespans colliding:
Can anyone on the ground in Madagascar comment? When is the main transmission season, etc?
This week I wrote on MalariaWorld about the constant email spamming by publishers to submit our manuscripts to them. After receiving yet another invitation today, this time from HINDAWI publisher (who constantly nag me by the way) I started thinking about the future of Open Access. When we started the MalariaWorld Journal, we wanted a journal with a focus on malaria where you don't pay to publish and don't pay to read, which we termed Open Access 2.0. The reasons for this were outlined in my other article this week but here I want to take this a step further and ask a simple question...why should we scientists, who have worked hard to get grants, do the science, analyse the data, and write up manuscripts pay for our work to be published by a publisher that wants to make profits? So perhaps it is time for Open Access 3.0?
John Wiley & Sons Publisher offers MalariaWorld subscribers a 20% discount on the book Integrated Vector Management by Graham Matthews.
Hardcover, 248 pages
October 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
£80.00 / €96.00
Special price for MalariaWorld subscribers: £64.00/€76.80
Every week I receive several emails from publishers that invite me to submit an article to their journal. I am convinced that the same happens to many of you as well. Frankly, I am getting very tired of this - the reason why this happens is not that these journals are approaching us because of what we do or who we are. It is all about money. Under the umbrella of 'our journal is Open Access' publishers have found a new way to generate income by lobbying hard for our manuscripts. For which of course we need to pay to get them published. Today I received another invitation from MDPI AG Publishers (Basel, Switzerland) which triggered me to do a bit of research...
Who can tell me where I can find good LLIM mosquitonets for a good price.
We need about 2500 nets for 19 villages in Malawi.
If I do nou buy in Malawi, do we have to pay a certain tax and VAT importing in Malawi?
Thank you for your help.
Cris van Beek
Ritas kleine Schritte in Malawi (small steps)
This week we are publishing seven research articles that were all funded by the Gates Foundation's Grand Challenges Explorations programme. This special series within the MalariaWorld Journal highlights the findings of seven GCE projects and is accompanied by an Editorial from the Gates Foundation.
At MalariaWorld we were keen to hear more about the fate of these generally high-risk projects. What was the grand idea that researchers had in mind? And what was the outcome of the $100.000 grant that they undertook in 12-18 months?
Read for yourself how these GCE projects all showed very interesting results and thus underpin the value of the GCE programme of the Gates Foundation.
MalariaWorld Journal is proud to publish these articles and any recipient of a GCE grant is encouraged to also send us a manuscript upon completion of the project. We feel that it is important that these results are shared in the broader scientific community.
MalariaWorld Journal continues to be Open Access 2.0: where you don't pay to read and you don't pay to publish. We look forward to receiving your manuscript in due course.
Link to the articles: www.malariaworld.org/mwj
Teun Bousema (Editor-in-Chief, MalariaWorld Journal)
SUMMARY OF RECENT AFRICAN MALARIA DIALOGUE at BENTLEY UNIVERSITY on 21 MAY 2013
Fifteen of us attended from Bentley, BU, Yale, Harvard and MIT, and from Ghana, Sudan, Nigeria, Canada and US. Derek Willis from Columbia U also joined us via Skype.
The Makerere University at Kampala has been able to demonstrate over the recent years that the regular consumption of Artemisia annua tea may lead to a strong preventive effect against malaria. ( PE Ogwang et al., Trop J Pharmac Res, 2012,13:3, 445-453; PE Ogwang et al., Brit J Pharmac Res 201, 1 :4, 124.132). This research effort sponsored by government of Uganda and Carnegie corporation USA, has led to the development of drug called Artavol® which is now available in pharmacies in Uganda. This product contains ingredients from three medicinal herbs.
Many of us work in laboratories where we study the intricacies of malaria. Where we study parasites and mosquitoes and where we develop new approaches that hopefully one day will help to reduce the malaria burden. Few of us, however, have worked in the trenches to combat malaria in the real world out there. Even fewer of us have dared to venture into places that are torn apart by civil unrest or war and do something about malaria there. We know of organisations like Doctors without Borders (MSF) but there are also people out there that risk their lives to accomplish nothing more exciting than to distribute bednets and anti-malarial drugs in remote parts of Africa that are at best unsafe.
Just recently, former TV icon Julia Samuel (Netherlands) and David Robertson (UK), who have been working for the Drive Against Malaria Foundation for years, were taken hostage in the Central African Republic by Seleka rebels. For days they were threatened at gunpoint and told that they would be killed. Miraculously, they managed to escape and make it back safely to Cameroon. Julia's story is remarkable. Whilst having a great career with Dutch TV she developed breast cancer, survived it, and then decided to devote her life to doing good. She chose malaria as her target. What does the above tell us and what are the lessons to be learned from this recent kidnapping?
I was wondering if any of your friends has sent you this link and asked you why we don't want the MMS miracle to be spread around... I'm still confused, not knowing if I should laugh or cry. But I'm inclined to cry...
Two competing chemotypes.
Already twenty years ago the possibility of two chemotypes for Artemisia annua had been suggested ( HJ Woerdenbag et al., Flavour and Fragrance Journal 8, 1993, 131-137) distinguishing between a Chinese and a Vietnamese chemotype, the former containing 0.17 artemisinin, the latter 1.0%.
D Fulzele et al. ( Phytotherapy Research , 5, 1991, 149-153) found that plants from Europe produced the highest level of artemisin and those from Lucknow produced the highest level of arteannuin-B.
Why not let MalariaWorld play a vital role in supporting ground breaking studies that often lack the preliminary ecological field data, required by traditional funders?
We, as dedicated scientists, can assemble a global bank of preliminary scientific field data for “high risk” project proposals to open new directions within malaria research. In doing so, young scientists are able to test creative ideas ahead of time and more experienced scientists are able to explore unexpected and promising observations or discoveries.
Today, 25 April marks World Malaria Day.
It is a day to reflect back on the progress that has been made in combating malaria around the globe and to contemplate future directions for research and control efforts to curb the impact and spread of this fully preventable and treatable disease that affects millions of lives on a daily basis. Let’s spare a thought for the countless lives that have been lost to this disease, and for the millions of people whose lives are affected at this very moment. May 2013 see more victories than defeats in the global fight against Malaria!
As a malaria professional, you are probably aware of the unfolding tragedy with counterfeit drugs. Either completely fake (drugs containing nothing more than chalk, washing powder, or even brake fluid) or substandard (not containing enough active ingredient) or outdated drugs are flooding the African market on an ever-increasing scale.
Experts like Professors Paul Newton and Nick White have been ringing the alarm bells for years, but in spite of their efforts the problem is getting worse by the day. Read 'Phake', the excellent book on the subject by Roger Bate, and you will appreciate how serious the situation has become...